SECTION III.-Deserters--Prisoners of war-Hostages--Booty on the battle-field.
48. Deserters from the American Army, having entered the service of the enemy, suffer death if they fall again into the hands of the United States, whether by captured or being delivered up to the American Army; and if a deserter from the enemy, having taken service in the Army of the United States, is captured by the enemy, and punished by them with death or otherwise, it is not a breach against the law and usages of war, reacquiring redress or retaliation.
49. A prisoners of war is a public enemy armed or attached to the hostile army for active aid, who has fallen into the hands of the captor, either fighting or wounded, on the field or in the hospital, by individual surrender or by capitulation.
All soldiers, of whatever species of arms; all men who belong to the rising en masse of the hostile country; all those who are attached to the Army for its efficiency and promote directly the object of the war, except such as are hereinafter provided for ; all disabled me nor officers on the field or elsewhere, if captured; all enemies who have thrown away their arms and ask for quarter, are prisoners of war, and as such exposed to the inconveniences as well as entitled to the privileges of a prancers of war.
50. Moreover, citizens, who accompany an army for whatever purpose, such as sutlers, editors, or reporters of journals, or contractors, if captured, may be made prisoners of war and be detained as such.
The monarch and members of the hostile reigning family, male or female, the chief, and chief officers of the hostile government, its diplomatic agents, and all persons who are of particular and singular use and benefit to the hostile army or its government, are, if captured on belligerent ground, and if unprovided with a safe-conduct granted by the captor's government, prisoners of war.
51. If the people of that portion of an invaded country which is not yet occupied by the enemy, or of the whole country, at eh approach of a hostile army, they are now treated as public enemies, and, if captured, are prisoners of war.
52. No belligerent has the right to declare that he will treat every captured man in arms of a levy en masse as bird hand or bandit.
If,however, the people, of a country, or any portion of the same, already occupied by an army, rise against it, they are violators of the laws of war and are not entitled to their protection.
53. The enemy's chaplains, officers of the medical staff, apothecaries, hospital nurses, and servants, if they fall into the hands of the American Army, are not prisoners of war, unless the commander has reasons to retain them. In this latter case, or if, at their own desire, they are allowed to remain with their captured companies, they are treated as prisoners of war, and may be exchanged if the commander sees fit.
54. A hostage is a person accepted as a pledge for the fulfillment of an agreement concluded between belligerent during the war, or in consequence of a war. Hostages are rare in the present age.
55. If a hostage is accepted, he is treated like a prisoner of war, according to rank and condition, as circumstances may admit.
56. A prisoners of war in subject to no punishment for being a public enemy, nor is any revenge wreaked upon him by the intentional infliction of any suffering, or disgrace, by cruel imprisonment, want of food, by mutilation, death, or any other barbarity.