War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 0049 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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13. The commanding officer will make himself acquainted with the approaches to his work, the distance to each prominent point commanded by his guns, the nature of the ground between them and his post, and the most probable points of attack upon it.

Tables of ranges or distances for each point, and the corresponding elevations in each case, according to the nature of the projectile, with the proper length or time of the fuse when shell or case-shot are used, will be made out for each gun, and furnished to the officer and noncommissioned officers serving it. As these differ for different kinds of gun, the same men should be permanently assigned to the same piece.

14. The projectiles should be used in their proper order. At a distance, solid shot; then shells or case-shot, especially if firing at troops in line. Canister or grape is only for use at short ranges. When columns are approaching, so that they can be taken in direction of their length, or very obliquely, solid shot is generally the best projectile, because of its greater accuracy and penetrating power. If the column consists of cavalry, some shells or case-shot will be useful from the disorder their bursting among the horses. As to the absolute distance at which the projectiles must be used, they vary with the description and caliber of the guy, and can only be ascertained by consulting the tables of ranges. The prominent parts on the approaches to the works should be designated, their distances noted, and directions drawn up for the different kinds of ammunition to be used at each gun when the enemy reaches them. During the drills the attention of the chiefs of pieces and gunners should frequently be drawn to this subject.

15. Commanding officers will pay special attention to the police and preservation of the works. All filth will be promptly removed and the drainage be particularly attended to. No one should be allowed to walk on the parapets, nor move or sit upon the gabions, barrels, or sand-bags that may be placed upon them. When injuries occur to the earth-works, they should be repaired as quickly as possible by the garrison of the work. If of a serious nature, they should at once be reported to the engineer officer in charge of the work. All injuries to the magazines or platforms of the guns will be promptly reported as soon as observed.

16. Special written instructions as to the supply of ammunition at the different posts, and the proportion for the different classes of guns, will be furnished by the chief of artillery to the commanders of posts at the earliest period practicable. Instructions will also be furnished as to the special objects of each work.

17. No person not connected with the garrisons of the field-works will be allowed signed them excent such as visit them on duty, or who have passes signed by competent authority; nor will any person, except commissioned officer, or those whose duty requires them to do so, be allowed to enter the magazine or touch the guns, their implements, or equipments.

18. The garrison can greatly improve the work by sodding the superior (upper) slope of the parapet, and also the exterior or outer slope, or by sowing grass seed on the superior slope, first covering it with suface soil. The grass-covered or sodded portions of the parapets, traverses, magazines, &c., should be occasionally watered in dry weather and the grass kept closely cut.

19. As a great deal of powder is wasted in unnecessary salutes,

4 R R-SERIES III, VOL III