War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 0033 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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in such numbers over the whole country that the owners had but a vague idea of the numbers they possessed. Horses were sold at &5 to $10; cattle, $2 to $3. Now a good horse of the Sonora stock, small, ugly, but of the most surprising endurance, costs $100. The mountains surrounding Altar are Carnero Range, to the east two or three miles distant; through this sierra, there is a pass to La Magdalena. Highest point of the Sierra del Chino, thirteen miles, south 20 degrees east; Sierra del Chanate, fifteen to eighteen miles westerly. The prefect, Don Jose Maria Redopondo, lives in Altar. He politely gave me letters to the presidents of Pitiquito and Cahorca, instructing them to afford me every facility possible in the performance of my duties, and to furnish guides free of charge. From the principal people of Altar, as of the other towns, we received proofs of friendship and hospitality, though their country has been cursed with the presence of straggling bands of vagabond Americans and others speaking the English language, mistaken for Americans, who are not only a disgrace to th the Aglo-Saxon race. The prefect had issued instructions to the authorities on the river at Oquitva, El Atil, Tubatama, and Saric to repair roads and make new ones where necessary on the route to Tuscon by the river.

On the morning of the 6th started for Oquitva, a small town of 500 inhabitants, six miles and a fifth, north 25 degrees east of Altar, on the right bank of the river. This in entirely an agricultural population. The harvest of wheat is 5,000 fanegas, about 2,000 of corn, some barley, and beans. Barley is sown in larger quantities this year. The usual fruits, sugar-cane, tobacco, &c. The river bottom is very fertile, and yields prolific where the soil is irrigated. Here are four flour mills, having each one run of stones. There is a good deal of water power here. It is very favorably situated for manufactories. The town is serenaded by hills, barren, bleak, and said to be mineral. Fuel is abundant, and in the immediate vicinity. Beef- cattle and grazing scarce. There is a church. No stores or mechanics. The president de la municipalidad is Basilio Caballero.

At 2 p. m. same day arrived at El Atil, a village eleven miles and two-third from Oquitva, on the river. It contains about 100 inhabitants (Indians), with the exception of live or six Mexican families. There is considerable good arable land under cultivation here, yielding annually of wheat 7,000 fanegas, 1,000 to 2,000 fanegas of corn, and some barley. Of the latter, as in other pueblos, more than usual has been sown this season, and for the same reason. There is some water power here also, the only flour mill, belonging to Don Miguel Zepeda, being propelled by water. Their is an old church here. There are no stores or mechanics; but very few cattle or stock of any kind. Abundance of corn fodder and grain can be had here for trains at the usual prices. Don Manuel Hugues is the juez local, and only authority in El Atil. The country is more open here. There is considerable grazing also, and fuel at hand. The sierras in the vicinity and view are Santa Teresa, five miles northeast, said to be rich in copper; El Carrisal, a range running east and west, nearest point six to nine miles distant, northerly; El Atil, a small hill half o mile south.

On the morning of the 7th started for Tubatama, a town of 800 inhabitants. It is entirely surronded by hills, and stands upon a knoll seventy-five to eighty-five feet high on the left bank of the Altar River, the bottom lands of which are here extremely fertile and well cultivated, under corn, wheat, sugar-cane, tobacco, beans, some barley, the various vegetables and fruits of this latitude. The annual