other by Don Donisio Gonzales, both horse or mule power, there being no water-power on the rive below Oquitva. There are three arrastres crushing quartz belonging to Don Francisco Gastela. The quarts is brought from El Saucito, four leagues and a half west. Yield of gold about $56 per ton. The sierras in this vicinity, as in those of all the pueblos, are mineral. In Pitiquito there are four stores, one blacksmith shop, one millwright (American), one carpenter, and shoemakers, silversmiths, saddle makers, &c. Don Faustino Feliz is the mayor or president de la municipalidad of Pitiquito. The him, Don Salvador Mendez, and Don Francisco Gastela we are indebted for much kindness, and to Rafael Rivera also. These gentlemen are public-spirited and intelligent. They took immediate steps to improve the road to and from their town, and on our return we found two miles of a new road made and the road over the hill toward Altar smooth and level, they having removed loose stones and rocks therefrom. They and the people of this place are to make a new road for six to ten miles toward Libertad, shortening and improving the route considerably. The following sierras are seen from the church top, viz:
Sierra Alta de Pitiquito, just at town, north 60 degrees west; Sierra de San Hilario, north 30 degrees west; Sierra de Chucurate, three to four leagues, north 20 degrees east; Sierra de la Gamuza, south 45 degrees east, Sierra de Aquituni, eight to nine leagues, south 17 degrees east; Cerro de la Campana south, and the Sierras del Quizuan and del Agua Salado (directions lost).
On the morning of the 5th of November left Pitiquito and arrived same day at Altar, the capital of the district of the same name, situated on the right bank of the river. It has a population of 1,500 within the town, and, including the farms and little ranches in the vicinity, 2,000 in all. The extent of land under cultivation her e is limited. Scarcely enough for home consumption is raised. The town is, like the others on the river, built of adobes, the houses being with one exception one story high. The productions are the same as in Pitiquito and Cahorca, with few exceptions. The water of the river (called so by courtesy, I suppose, for it is only an insignificant rivulet) dimishes in volume every year. The rains for many seasons have been very light, and many of the springs and little afluents to the river lose themselves in then. Agricultural and other products can be obtained here at same prices as at the other towns. There is no flour mill. There are, however, ten stores, two blacksmiths, two tailors, one wheelwright, six slivermisths, an old church, and the only priest in the district resides here. Here I may say, en passant, that everything in the way of buiical labor, implements, &c., is of the most primitive description. Though the Mexican have in such great numbers from this district been in California, they appear to have profited but little by the example of American, mechanics and American industry. The district is sparsely settled, more, from the fear of the dread Apache than anything else. The country has been laid waste and desolate by these Indians; cattle have been run off from ranches having tens of thousands, and lives sacrificed in numbers to make the recital cause one to shudder. Their is so little stock left now in Sonora that the Indians are obliged to come to the very corrals in the towns to steal animals. Without the exprimination of the Apaches or the settlement of Sonora by a different race, of entire depopulation and ruin of the State is only a question of time. In former years horses, cattle, and sheeps were