War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 0031 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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of corn fodder is always to be had at the pueblos, as two harvests are raised annually. They have no way of selling it by weight. It is made in bundles (tercios) of from six to twelve pounds, according to the age of the corn, and sold for 6 1\2 cents per tercio at retail. It is an excellent food for animals, as the ears as well as the straw are sold, At this place there are one flour mill (belonging to Don Manuel Carmelo), four stores, two carpenters and wheelwrights, one black-smith, six to eight shoemakers, three of four tailors, and two silver-smiths. From the top of the church, the finest in Sonora, are seen the following mountains:

Sierra del Saucito, say five leagues distant, north 15 degrees west; Sierra de la Vasura, six leagues and a half to seven distant, north 40 degrees west; Puerto Blanco, two leagues and a half distant, north 85 degrees west; Sierra de Santa Teresa, forty miles distant, north 60 degrees east; Cerro del Potreto, about one mile distant, south 65 degrees west; Cerro del Alamo Muerto, ten leagues distant, south 87 degrees west; Cerro de la Calera, two leagues and a half distant, south 70 degrees west; Sierra de la Mosca (Cordillera), south 45 degrees west; Sierra Viejo, seven or eigh leagues distant, south 30 degrees west; Sierra de Aquituni, eight or nine leagues distant, south 5 degrees west; Cerro de Canedo (range), east to south 30 degrees east. Puerto del Alamo, five leagues, north 10 degrees east, and Puerto del Chanate, five leagues, north 20 degrees east, are two passes in the mountains though which it is said good direct roads can be found from Cahorca to Los Paredones, which would shorten the road from Liebertad to braving it via Cahorca and these passes to Los Paredones. Don Jesun Rivera and Don Miguel Carmelo agreed to examine these passes and the route, to take a cart and test them thoroughly and inform me of the result; they say that water and grass can be found at convenient distances. The Chanate Ranch is en route via the Chanate Pass, where there is good water and grass. I can recommend the following residents of Cahorca as excellent guides, viz:

Antonio Ramirez in regard to various routes to the coast; Jose de los Santos and Mariano Molino to Arizona and the various routes to different sections of Sonora. The district of Altar is supplied with salt to a great extent from Cahorca. It is brought from La Salina and Cerro del Tanque.

On the 4th I left Cahorca and arrived same day at Pitiquito, a town of 1,200 inhabitants, including the small farmers in the immediate neighborhood. Pitiquito is on th six and fifty-four hundredths miles east of Cahorca and fourteen miles south 82 degrees west of Altar, and about five miles below the confluence of the Altar and Magdalena or San Ignacio rivers. This is the first pueblo in point of agriculture in the district. The soil is very fertile, and the quantity under cultivation is limited compared with what can be cultivated. The extent at present under crops is about four miles in length by two along the river banks, all irrigated. Of wheat they raise annually 8,000 fanegas; of corn, say 2,000 fanegas; some barley, beans, sugar-cane, tobacco, the usual fruits, and vegetables are raised in sufficient quantities for home consumption. Prices the same as at Cahorca. Some little crystallized sugar and considerable panoche are manufactured here. Tobacco and cotton also flourish. There are probably about 2,000 head of cattle owned in this pueblo, a few sheep, horses, and mules, but very few. There are two flour mills, one owned by Don Pedro Selaya and the