War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 0030 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

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gold and silver mines in this neighborhood, in the Sierra del Alamo, viz:

Of sliver: La Morenana, a real, one league due north from Pozo; El Aqua Nueva, one league northwest from Pozo; besides La Purisima, San Francisco, Zepedas, &c.

Of gold: The Placer de las Palomas is the principal, being two leagues north 60 degrees west from the Pozo; it yields from 50 cents to $16 per day to the hand.

There are severs arrastres at work at the Pozo reducing silver. The Alamo Muerto Rancho is seven leagues distant to the northwest, where there is wood, water, and grass in abundance, and by which the wagon road to thra del Alamo are five aquajes (watering places), viz, La Morenena, El Agua Nueva, Agua de las Palomas, Chucubabi and Pozo Moreneno.

On the morning of the 3rd instant the wagon returned to Cahorca, which is fifty-three miles and two-miles and two-third from the port, and six miles and fifty-four hundredths from Pitiquito.

Cahorca is situated on the right bank of the Altar River; has a population of 800 souls, chiefly engaged in agriculture and mining. The land in the river bottom is very fertile, and yields annually about 6,000 fanegas of wheat 2,000 fanegas of corn, some barley, beans, &c. The land in cultivation is about four miles square in extent, and is but a fraction of what is suspetible of cultivation. The sugar cane, tobacco, and cotton flourish here; all the fruits usual in this latitude grow in abundance. About thirty years ago the river changed its course, having formerly gone to the west, or nearly so, when it afforded much more water for irrigation. In those days there was sufficient water at Bisane (fifteen miles from Cahorca and one mile and half to the right of the route to Lobos) to raise large quantities of grain. Now there is no water at that point. It is a very fertile ranch, belonging to Don Dionisio Gonzales. There is a rancheria of about 300 Papago Indiana here who cultivate enough to subsist on, and who have to draw their water from La Calera, a distance of nine miles, and drive their cattle to water at the same place. It is very difficult to collect static from the Mexicans. Of the amount of wheat raised on the Altar River at the various towns, I got official information from the prefect, and has his statements fully corroborated by the principal merchants. Barley is raised in limited quantities from the fact that there is no demand for it. In the hope, however, that the route from Libertad to Tuscon shall be opened, the farmers have sowed much more barley this season than usual. The time of sowing grain, wheat, and barley is in the beginning of November. I recommended that barley should be raised in considerable quantities. The prices of wheat and barley are about the same at all the pueblos, viz: Wheat at harvest time, $1,50 per fanega (150 pounds); wheat at seed time, $3 per fanega (150 pounds); barley at harvest time, $1 per fanega (120 pounds); barleanega (120 pounds). Beans cost from $3 to $8 per fanega; average, $5; corn the same as wheat, but the fanega weighs about 200 pounds.

Beef-cattle and all kinds of stock are scarce. I estimate that about 4,000 head of cattle pertain to Cahorca, and may be 5,000 to 6,000 head are on the Calera Ranch, six miles from there. Among themselves they sell steers from $5 to $12. There are no butchers. Animals are generally fattened for slaughter in the towns, and then they sell for about $20. Heavy oxen, fat, from $40 to $60. An abundance