distance from beach being from four to five miles. Las Sierras del Mescal (two detached hills), north 80 degrees east; Sierra del Datil, east. Sierra del Tolache, southern point of bay, south 26 degrees east. Point of low spit of land forming the northern extremity of bay, south 52 degrees west. Knoll near the spit, south 76 degrees west. Large island (probably Tiburon), south 40 degress west. Isla del Angel de la Guardila, from such to south 20 degrees west, about forty miles distant. the observations were taken a mile north 70 degrees east from the point marked jackals on the map. the growth of wood at Lobos is the same as at Libertad, with the addition of the copal tree, which grows on the Cerro de Copal and neighboring ridges and ravines.
In regard to water, I refer to my itinerary of this route. I have no doubt abundance can be obtained by artisan boring. Fish in more abundance even than at La Libertad were seen here, and in a small cove to the north were seen about 300 seals on the shore, one of which was killed by one of our party. As at La Libertad also we found the earth near the beach nearly cover in parts with pumice stone. Good building stone is abundant in the hills, but no timber; fuel is plentiful. The first known of this bay by the people of Cahorca was in 1840 o 1841, when the Papago Indians discovered a wreck of a vessel, upon advice of which several parties went to the port from Cahorca by way of the Alamo Muerto Rancho and the desemboque by the beach. I have seen no map having anything like a correct representation of the bay of Lobos, and none previous to Robinson's having Libertad on at all. In the whole district of Altar the most confused and undefined ideas existed in regard to Lobos bay, and my guide, Antonio Ramirez, was the only person who gave me assurance of finding a practicable wagon route, and he redeemed his promise. I was told by a person who was at Lobos several times that it was impracticable to take an empty wagon. I took a h-loaded wagon, drawn by a very poor team, without the slightest difficulty, without using an ax, a spade, or crowbar, or moving any obstruction in the road or going over a single sand-hill. I was assured by parties pretending to respectability that for sixteen miles the route lay over mountains of shifting sand-hills. Sand- hills are seen, but none but a simpleton would cross them, as they are no more in a direct route than a good hard road is. I hope I have dispersed an illusion and a delusion widespread in regard to the impractibility of the Lobos and Libertad routes. This delusion was fostered with great care by parties in and out of Sonora, whose love of gain exceeds their love of truth and manly honor. It is proper to say that Lobos is not yet a port of entry, not being, as it is termed in Sonora, habilitado. On the coast above Lobos bay are two estuaries (esteros) affording safe anchorage for small vessels. The first is between Lobos Bay and El Desemboque. It is a kind of canal, about 500 yards long by 150 yards wide, having five to six feet of water at low tide; it is two leagues south of the desemboque, and is well sheltered from winds. In case of the neighboring hills being rich in minerals this will be a valuable anchorage. The second estero is at La Salina, where large quantities of salt are found. It is fit for small schooners only. Fresh water is at the distance of 1,500 yards, within five feet of the surface. Guano is got from San Isla Blanco, in the vicinity. Fine white salt is found at La Siwerra de la Sacrarita and La Sierra del Tanque.
On the morning of the 2nd I arrived on my return at the Pozo Moreneno, described in the itinerary of this route. There are several