from 10 to 1, and then ceasing at sunset. The nights were cool, but not chilly. I should judge, though I do not pretend to any nautical experience, that vessels may safely anchor in this bay and ride out any storm except from the southwest, and even then, unless it be unusually severe, when there is enough sea room to make sail and leave the bay should it be necessary. What is termed the cordonazo, which take place in September, are the severest storms in the gulf, and then it is said the bay is comparatively smooth. With the exception of San Diego and San Francisco, California has no harbor comparable to La Libertad. The intended town of La Libertad is laid our the shore, having the center of the principal plaza about 400 yards back from the pozo or well, which latter is about fifty yards from the shore at the rock called Piedra Parada. This part of the bay is the best for landing goods at present.
According to the observations of the scientific commission above referred to, the center of the plaza is in latitude 29o 53" 47" north and the longitude 112o 32"45" 43" west of Greenwich. The port and town are surrounded by sierras of some height, between which and the sea there is in inclined plane devoid of water or grass and of a sterile, rather loose soil, bearing a growth of mesquite, torote, hediondilla, sahuaro, sahuesa, pitahaya, occuatilla, palo verde, and palo ferro. It is true that one of the ridges of sand about four miles and a half to the south the beach yields some galleta grass, but to no great extent, from the absence of rain, but the dried-up remains of last years's growth were all that could be seen this season. Fresh water is obtained in abundance in the well (pozo) near the beach at Piedra Parada at a depth of twelve to fifteen feet. It is clear, pure, but warm. From the Piedra Parada along the beach for about 250 yards fresh water of about a temperature of 98o Fahrenheit issues from the sandy beach, to which wild animals come to drink at low water. At La Piedra Parada, which is southe 3 degrees east from the pozo, and fifty feet long by forty feet wide, and covered at high tides, there is a warm spiring in which one can enjoy a luxurious warm bath. The wate is fresh enough for drinking and cooking purposes, although it has a slightly mineral taste. There is a house partially fallen down, the only one there, on Point Robinson, which was built by Don Miguel Zepeda, of Altar, for a warehouse. Last year ex-Governor Cubillos, of Sonora, shipped a quantity of copper ore from this port to England in a vessel of ever 1,000 tons burden. The harbor is full of a great variety of fish, such as basss, mullet, sardines, flounders, rock-cold, sharks, turtles, crabs, blackfish, and goldfish of a large size. Clams and a species of oyster were also found. Very few shells were found on the beach, an evidence of absence of storms, breakers, and surf. The nearest settlements to the port are Cahorca and Pitiquito. There is a deserted rancho belonging to one Don Fernando Cerna about fifty miles from the port, situated about six miles to the south of the road, where there are two inexhaustible wells of water and an excellent grazing range. Until wells are dug or water discovered on the road between Pitiquito and Libertad each wagon should carry a barrel to contain about forty gallons of water, or trains of fifteen wagons have each a water-tank of 600 gallons capacity. This would avoid the necessity of going to the Picu, four or five miles off the road, for water. Several parties are now, however, ready to sink wells, make dams, and settle on the road, provided the supplies for our troops are transported over this route. There is no danger of a scarcity of water in that event. The whole route from Tuscon, with