War of the Rebellion: Serial 124 Page 0025 UNION AUTHORITIES.

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via Arivace, Altar, and Pitiquito, and arrived at La Libertad on the 20th of October. I append hereto an itinerary of the route.*

The distances were measured by an odometer, which I was fortunate to get the loan of from Mr. J. B. Mills, jr., interpreter to Lieutenant Nichols, commanding my escort. The port of La Libertad is not on that part of the Gulf of California known as Lobos Bay, but at a distance which I estimate to be about twenty miles south of it. I inclose herewith a copy of map* of the Ensenada de Los Lobos, so-called, and the port of La Libertad, made by the scientific commission of which Don Thomas Robinson, of Guaymas, was chief. Previous to obtaining or seeing this map, by the aid of a both, the frame of which was got out in Tuscon by mechanics of the quartermaster's department and put together at La Libertad, I took sounding in the port, which are marked on the map in red ink in feet. To Mr. J. B. Mills, jr., I am indebted for the triangulation of the bay, and for tracing the result (in red ink) on Robinson's map, time not permitting the making of an original; and as the result of both surveys are so nearly similar I did not consider an original map necessary. Where there is any difference in the soudings I have no hesitation in saying that the result of my own labors, marked in red ink, are as correct as circumstances and time would permit.

Having arrived on the 20th, and the 21st, 22nd, and part of the 23rd of October being taken up in putting the boat together, I could not, considering the quantity of provisions and forage on hand and the absence of grass, remain more than a day and a half longer to make sounding and reconnoiter the vicinity. Of the value of this Ensenada of Libertad as a port no one can doubt. The sounding show a depth of water sufficient for vessels of any tonnage; the holding ground is excellent, the bottom being generally of fine white sand and shell at that part marked on the map as El Puerto de la Libertad, except where the ledges of rock are carefully laid down. These rocks are low, flat cropping of the bed rock, and visible in the water in fair weather. The bottom in the upper or Cabo de Lobos part of the bay is sandy in parts, gravelly in others, and near the shore composed of cobblestones, gravel, and sand. The shore is generally sandy and gravelly. The banks, are low, sandy loam, except the southern part, which consists of high bluffs of sand and shell of about a mile and a quarter in length, broken by ravines and gullies. From Point Kino to Cabo de Lobos the bay exp-fourths miles and has a depth of about two miles near the center. At Point Robinson a ledge of broken, jagged rocks extends into the sea about 400 yards. The constant ripple at this point indicates the presence of rocks. By extending a mole or breakwater in the direction of these rocks 400 or 500 yards, vessels could ride at anchor in the bay to the south with the greatest security in almost any storm. The sounding on the map will show that the part of the bay between Point Robinson and Cabo de Lobos has deep water and a bold shore where vessels may discharge within a few yards of the bank. The beach is in nearly all its extent admirably adapted to beach vessels for repairs. The rise and fall of the tides I cannot give and exact account of for want of time and instruments, but I think it has an average rise and fall of nine to ten feet. There is nothing on the beach to indicate heavy storms or surf or breakers. During my stay there the climate was delightful; the winds commencing very lightly in the morning, about 4 o"clock, from the east, changing gradually to the northwest, blowing a pleasant breeze


* Omitted.