at New Bedford, including readiness for a tier of guns at the fort there. These are all the permanent forts now in process of construction on the coast of Massachusetts. Among the permanent defenses yet to be prepared on the coast of this State the most important to be now taken in hand are those for the protection of Provincetown Harbor. The construction of these may well be provided for by the State government, in conformity with the views set forth in the circular of Mr. Secretary Seward of October 14, 1861,* if the design there presented is to be carried into execution, and they should be commenced without delay. The sum of $100,000 will be suitable for making a commencement of the work. The total cost of the defenses of Provincetown Harbor was conjectural estimated a number of years ago to be $600,000.
Next to Provincetown are Salem and Marblehead. Projects for defenses fo these harbors were prepared many years ago. The works for Salem will cost about $350,000, and those for Marblehead about $600,000; and there should be provided for commencing them- for Salem, $100,000, and for Marblehead, $100,000. At New Bedford, besides the fort on Clark's Point, there is to be a fort on Egg Island Shoal, across the channel and higher up. This fort will cost to complete, it about $300,000, and for its commencement the sum of $100,000 should be provided.
No project for permanent defenses for Gloucester has yet been prepared.
The works that have now been enumerated are all permanent forts, the construction of which should be taken in hand as soon as funds for the purpose can be supplied, and they belong to that class for which the State may very properly make provision, according to the circular of the State Department of October 14, 1861.
While the preparation of floating defenses does not pertain to the Engineer Department, it is proper to say that in cases where they are applicate their use has always been contemplated as an element of value to be availed of in connection with the furnished land defenses. When these last are unfinished, and particularly when resort must be had to substitutes of the nature of field-works, the propriety of providing floating defenses is proportionately increased. The recent practical tests of the power of resistance of iron-clad vessels leave no doubt that floating defenese should be thoroughly covered with heavy armor.
If, as has recently been the case, our foreign relations should become threatening it would be necessary to resort in several of the cases enumerated above to preparations of a temporary character that can be speedily made, and also in some other cases that have not been mentioned, but for which temporary works have always been contemplated as the kind of defenses most appropriate. These will now be enumerated.
In the event of a foreign war impeding there should be provided at Long Island Head, Boston Harbor, temporary works mountain fifty guns; probable cost, $100,000. At other points in Boston Harbor cover for thirty guns; probable cost, $60,000. At Provincetown Harbor, fifty guns; probable cost, $100,000. At New Bedford, twenty guns; probable cost, $40,000. At Salem, twenty guns; probable cost, $40,000. At Marblehead, twenty guns; probable cost, $40,000. At Gloucester, Gurnet Point, Newburyport, Beverly, Nantucket, Edgartown, Falmouth, Holmes' Hole, and some other places on the coast of Massachusetts, 100 guns; probable cost, $200,000. These are all intended to be