their present area, and the establishment of a thorough system of police within the bounds of the stockade and wards of the hospital. Without the presence of an adequate guard in all parts of the premises occupied by the prisoners no efficient system of hygiene or of medical practice can be carried out. Prisoners left to themselves will not regard sanitary rules. Even the armies of the Confederacy in the field have (especially in the earlier periods of the war) suffered from the neglect of sanitary regulations to an alarming and most unfortunate extent, as is well known to the Surgeon-General.
(b) The construction of comfortable shelters for the sick and well upon a definite plan. As far as the hospital is concerned no plan is needed beyond the general one for Confederate hospitals.
(c) The substitution, as far as possible, of wheat in the place of corn, and the liberal issue of sweet potatoes, peas, and molasses to the well, and of rice and milk and fresh beef to the sick.
(d) A thorough organization of the medial department with a large increase of medical officers.
(e) The appointment, as far as possible, of disabled but competent Confederate sodliers as nurses.
(f) The establishment of a rigid system of hygiene rules for the government of all prison hospitals throughout the Confederate States.
(g) A liberal supply of bedding, clothes, and cooking utensils to the sick.
(h) The appointment of the necessary number of chaplains to minister to the sick.
The following documents were carefully copied from the records on file at Andersonville, and have been appended to this portion of my labors that full justice might be done to the Confederate surgeons in charge of the sick and wounded prisoners at Andersonville.*
Report on gangrene by A. Thornburg, Assistant Surgeon, Provisional Army, C. S., C. S. military prison hospital, Andersonville, Ga.
C. S. MILITARY PRISON HOSPITAL.
Surg. JOSEPH JONES, Provisional Army, C. S., Augusta, Ga.:
SIR: It was out original intention to give you in this report a description of the stockade, its location and general condition, but we learn you have it already drawn up by abler hands than ours. We will therefore, after stating some of the most prevalent diseases among the prisoners, confine our remarks principally to the subject of ulcers and gangrene. As we will have to rely altogether on our notes and observations, taken for the most part within the last few months, drawn up under the most unfavorable circumstances imaginable, we fear, therefore, our remarks will prove both dry and uninteresting. The constant interference of an overdemand for our services as medical officers has prevented us from writing, except at irregular and uncertain intervals, therefore this report will present many deficiencies, both in arrangement and accuracy of detail.
*See Vol. VII, this series, as follows: White to Wright, April 25, 1864, p. 89; White to Moore, April 26, 1864, p. 91; White to Bowie, May-, 1864, p. 124; White to Hammond, June 20, 1864, p. 386; White to Bemiss, June 26, 1864, p. 417; White's report, June 30, 1864, p. 426; White to Moore, July 1, 1864, p. 430; White to Candler, August 2, 1864, p. 524; White to Winder, August 6, 1864, p. 557; Stevenson to Moore, September 1, 1864, p. 711; Stevenson to Moore, September 16, 1864, p. 830; mass-meeting of Federal prisoners, September 28, 1864, p. 888.
40 R R-SERIES II, VOL VIII