War of the Rebellion: Serial 121 Page 0616 PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE, ETC.

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They are said to have died at this time almost as rapidly as the Federal prisoners. At the present time they occupy the hills at some distance from the stockade.

It is also worthy of note that the various forms of malarial fever prevailed more extensively amongst the Confederate forces than amongst the Federal prisoners, for during the period of only two months, July and August, 581 cases were reported, or 15.4 per cent. of the mean strength of the Confederate troops, whilst only 7.2 per cent. of the mean strength of the Federal prisoners was affested by malarial fever during a period of six months. The Federal prisoners were incarcerated in a hot and even, to a certain extent, malarious climate. They were, to a great extent, unaccustomed to either the extreme heat or the malaria of the swamps. The Confederate forces, on the other hand, were natives of the soil and had been subjected to these influences from birth. It would have been but reasonable to suppose that the former would have suffered more severely from malrial fever than the latter. We can only account for the comparative immunity of the Federal prisoners on the supposition that the artificial atmosphere created by the immense accumulations of filth and human excrements within and around the stockade and hospital counteracted or destroyed in some unknown manner the malarial poison.

The emanations of the stockade and Federal prison hospital appeared to affect even the Confederate troops, and especially when, as in the first two or three months after the establishment of the prison, they were encamped immediately around the walls. I was informed by the Confederate surgeons that when the Confederate troops were encamped within a short distance of the Federal prisoners the mortality was far greater than during the months of July and August, after their removal to the adjoining hills from half to three-quarters of a mile off. I had selected a commanding eminence on the same hill immediately overlooking the stockade upon which to pitch my tent during the prosecution quarters across the railroad to a shady hill upon the advice of one of the sugeons, who informed me that the Confederate regiment encamped upon the spot originally selected had suffered heavily with a fatal form of continued fever, and had been compelled to remove to an adjoining hill.

Heavy mortality amongst the Confederate troops.-During the months of July and August 2,494 cases of disease were recorded amongst the Confederate troops; that is, 66.4 per cent. of the entire command was entered upon the sick-list during this short period, and the loss by death, although far less than amongst the Federal prisoners, still amounted to 2.3 per cent. If the same mortality continued throughout the entire year the command would lose by death alone 13.2 per cent. of the mean strength. Such mortaliy would insure the complete obliteration of a command by disease alone in the short period of about seven years and seven months.

Diarrhea and dysentery.-During the six months 12,090 cases and 3,530 deaths of acute and chronic diarrhea, and 4,682 cases and 999 deaths of acute and chronic dysentery were recorded. The cases of diarrhea and dysentery together numbered 16,772, or nearly one-half the total of sick and wounded. The deaths caused by these two diseases are recorded at 4,529, or in other words, these diseases caused more than one-half, or more exactly, 58.7 per cent. of all the deaths. These figures are below the truth. As far as my personal examinations extended, almost every prisoner was affected more or less with