August. The ratio of mortality continued to increase during September, for, notwithstanding the removal of one-half the entire number of prisoners, during the early portion of this month, 1,767 deaths were registered from September 1 to 21, and the largest number of deaths upon any one day occurred during this month, on the 16th, viz. 119.
The entire number of Federal prisoners confined at Andersonville was about 40,611, and during the period of near seven months, from February 24 to September 21, 9,479 deaths were recorded; that is, during this period near one-fourth, or, more exactly, one in 4.2, or 23.3 per cent., terminated fatally. This increase of mortality was due in great measure to the accumulation of the sources of disease, as the increase of excrements and filth of all kinds and the concentration of noxious effluvia, and also to the progressive effects of salt diet, crowding, and the hot climate. Surrounded by these depressing agencies, the postponement of the general exhange of prisoners, and the constant diminution of all hopes of deliverance through the action of their own Government weighed down in the dust the already desponding spirits and destroyed the moral energies so necessary to the successful strife against the elements and the ravages of disease. Homesickness and the disappointment of daily longings for release appeared to be as potent agencies in the destruction of the Federal prisoners as the physical causes of actual disease.
Malarial fever.-During this period of six months, from the 1st of March to the 1st of September, the deaths from malarial fever amounted to only 113, whilst the cases numbered 2,958.
Continued fevers.-No cases of typhus fever were reported, whilst 472 cases and 185 deaths of typhoid fever are recorded. In the latter disease the percentage of deaths was 39.1, or one death in 2.55 cases.
In the Confederate forces guarding the federal prisoners during the months of July and August, with a mean strength of 3,755 officers and men, 102 cases of typhoid fever with 38 deaths were recorded. The ratio of deaths to cases of typhoid fever was very nearly as great amongst the Confederate troops as amongst the Federal prisoners, being 1 death in 2.68 cases, or 37.2 per cent. of deaths. The ratio of cases of typhoid fever to the mean strength amongst the Confederate forces was, however, nearly three times as great as amongst the Federal prisoners, being in the former in the ratio of 1 case of typhoid fever in 36.8 men, or 2.71 per cent. of the entire command, and in the latter 1 case of typhoid fever in 86 Federal prisoners, or 1.16 per cent. of the mean strength. The greater prevalence of typhoid fever amongst the Confederate troops is still further shown by the fact that these statistics relate to only two months, whilst those of the federal prisoners embrace a period of six months. This differnce appears to be due in a measure to the fact that the Confederate forces were composed of reserves between the ages of sixteen and eighteen and forty-five and fifty-five years, and had been but recently collected together for service. They were raw troops who had not as yet passed through the diseases of camp. On the other hand, the Federal prisoners had passed through most of the diseases incident to raw troops, as measles and typhoid fever. The deaths fromtyphoid fever amongst the Confederate troops were said tohave been even greater during the months preceding July. These records were not on file in the office of the surgeon of the post, and I was unable to verify the statement of the great mortality amongst the Confederate guard during the earlier months. I was also informed that the mortality was far greater when the Confederate soldiers were campd immediately around the stockade.