War of the Rebellion: Serial 121 Page 0599 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION AND CONFEDERATE.

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the passage of the increased amounts of water out of the stockade were insufficient, the liquid feces overflowed the low grounds and covered them several inches after the subsidence of the waters. The action of the hot sun upon this putrefying mass of excrements and fragments of bread and meat and bones excited most rapid fermentation and developed a horrible stench. Improvements were projected for the removal of the filth and for the prevention of its accumulation, but they were only partially and imperfectly carried out.

As the forces of the prisoners were reduced by confinement, want of exercise, improver diet, and by scurvy, diarrhea, and dysentery, they were unable to evacuate their bowels within the steam or along its banks, and the excrements were deposited at the very doors of their tents. The vast majority appeared to lose all repulsion to filth, and both sick and well disregarded all the laws of hygiene and personal cleanliness.

The accommodations for the sick were imperfect and insufficient. From the organization of the prison, February 24, 1864, to May 22, the sick were treated within the stockade. In the crowded condition of the stockade, and with the tents and huts clustered thickly around the hospital, it was impossible to secure proper ventilation or to maintain the necessary police. The Federal prisoners also made frequent forays upon the hospital stores and carried off the food and clothing of the sick. The hospital was on the 22nd of May removed to its present site without the stockade, and five acres of ground, covered with oaks and pines, appropriated to the use of the sick.

The supply of medical officers has been insufficient from the foundation of the prison. The nurses and attendants upon the sick have been most generally Federal prisoners, who in too many cases appear to have been devoid of moral principle, and who not only neglected their duties, but were also engaged in extensive robberies of the sick.

From the want of proper police and hygienic regulations alone, it is not wonderful that from February 24 to September 21, 1864, 9,479 deaths (nearly one-third the entire number of prisoners) should have been recorded.

I found the stockade and hospital in the following condition during my pathological investigation instituted in the month of September, 1865 [1864]:

Stockade (C. S. military prison).-At the time of my visit to Andersonville a large number of Federal prisoners had been removed to Millen, Savannah, Charleston, and other parts of the Confederacy, in anticipation of an advance by General Sherman's forces from Atlanta with the design of liberating their captive brethren. However, about 15,000 prisoners remained confined within the limits of the stockade and C. S. military prison hospital.

In the stockade, with the exception of the damp low lands bordering the small steam, the surface was covered with huts and small ragged tents, and parts of blankets and fragments of oilcloth, coast, and blankets stretched upon stick. The tents and huts were not arranged according to any order, and there was in most parts of the inclosure scarcely room for two men to walk abreast between the tents and huts.

I observed men urinating and evacuating their bowels at the very tent doors and around the little vessels in which they were cooking their food. Small pits, not more than a foot or two deep, nearly filled with soft offensive feces, were everywhere seen, and emitted under the hot sun a strong and disgusting odor. Masses of corn bread, bones, old rags, and filth of every description were scattered around or accumulated in large piles. If one might judge from the large pieces of