are stregthened by earth-works upon commanding eminences, from which the cannon, in case of an outbreak amongst the prisoners, may sweep the entire inclosure, and it was desiganted to connect these works by a line of rifle-pits running zigzar around the outer stockade. These rifle-pits have never been completed.
The ground inclosed by the innermost stockade lies in the form of a parrallelogram, the langer diameter running almost due north and south. This space incluses the northern and southern opposing sides of two hills, between which a steam of water runs from west to east. The surface soil of these hills is composed chiefly of sand with varying admixtures of clay and oxide of iron. The clay is sufficiently tenacious to give a considerable degree of consitency to the soil. The internal structure of the hills as revealed by the deep wells is similar to that already described. The alternate beds of clay and sand, as well as the oxide of iron, which forms in its various combinations a cement to the sand, allow of extensive tunneling. The prisoners not only constructed numerous dirt huts with balls of clay and sand taken from the wells which they have excavated all over these hills, but they have also in some cases tunneled extensively from these wells. The lower portions of these bordering on the stream are wet and boggy, from the constant oozing of water.
The stockade was built originally to accommodate only 10,000 prisoners, and included at first seventeen acres. Near the close of the month of June the area was enlarged by the addition of ten acres. The ground added was situated on the northern slope of the largest hill.
The following table presents a view of the density of the population of the prison at different periods:
Table illustrating the mean number of Federal prisoners confined in the C. S. military prison at Andersonville, Ga., from its organization, February 24, 1864, to September, 1864, area of stockade, and the average number of square feet of ground to each prisoner.
Date. Mean strength Area of stockade Average number
of Federal in square feet. of square feet
prisoners. of ground to
March... 7,500 740,520 98.7
April... 10,000 740,520 74
May... 15,000 740,520 49.3
June... 22,291 740,520 33.2
July... 29,030 1,176,120 40.5
August... 32,899 35.7
Within the circumscribed area of the stockade the Federal prisoners were compelled to perform all the offices of life-cooking, washing, urinating, defecation, exercise, and sleeping. During the month of March the prison was lees crowded than at any subsequent time, and then the average space of ground to each prisoners was only 98.7 feet, or less than eleven square yards. The Federal prisoners were gathered from all parts of the Confederate States east of the Mississippi and crowed into this confined space, until in the month of June the average number of square feet of ground to each prisoners was only 33.2 or less than 4 square yards. These figures represent the condition of the stockade in a better light even than it really was; for a considerable breadth of land along the steam flowing from west to east