passing through Nassau, and ascending along the coast of Florida through Fort Dallas, Saint Augustine, and along the coast of Georgia and Carolina through Savannah and Charleston, and thence almost directly across the continent, through Columbus, Montgomery, Jackon, Vicksburg, Miss., Austin and Fort Dawson, Tex., thus falling below the thirtieth degree of north latitude in Texas. For the automn it commences on the Atlantic coast as high up as the thirty-fifth degree of latitude, and passes through Beaufort, N. C., Wilmington, N. C., Columbus, Ga., Montogemry, Ala., Jackson, Miss., and in Texas falls below the thirtieth degree of latitude, and on the Pacific coast rises again above the thirty-fifth degree of latitude. For the winter the isotherman line of Andersonville again commences on the Atlantic coast near the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude, and passes through Fort Johnston, N. C., Charleston, S. C., near Savannah, Ga., and Montgomery, Ala., Jackson, Miss., Natchitoches, La., Austin, Forts Lincoln and Clark, Tex., passing in Texas as low as the twenty-fourth degree of latitude, and then, rising towards the Pacific coast, strikes the Pacific Ocean about the thirty-seventh degree fiftieth minute north latitude. For the entire year the isothermal line commences on the Atlantic coast near the thirty-fourth degree north latitude, passes through Fort Johnston, N. C., Montgomery, Ala., Jackson, Miss., and descends in Texas below the thirtieth, degree, and in Mexico below the twenty-fifth degree, and ascends toward the Pacific coast as high as the thirty-seventh degree north latitude.
It is evident, therefore, from these facts that the climate of Andersonville, is similar in most respects to that of the interior basin of the Mississippi, being colder in winter and autumn and spring and warmer in summer than the Atlantic coast in the same latitude.
In conclusion, as far as my pathological and physical investigations extended, I ws compelled to believe that the diseases which proved so fatal to the Federal prisoners confined at Andersonville, Ga., were due to causes other than those connected with the soil, waters, and climate.
The heat of the climate may have promoted and rapid decomposition of the filth, which in violation of all hygienic laws was allowed to accumulate in the stockade and hospital grounds; and also in itself the heat may have been a cause of debility; but still the fearful mortality could not properly be referred to this condition of the climate or to all the elements of climate combined.
No blame can be attached to the Confederate authorities for the collection of the Federal prisoners at this elevated and healthy locality which was more salubrious than one-half the territory of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
Description of the C. S. military prison and hospital at Andersonville, number of prisoners, physical condition, food, clothing, habits, moral condition, diseases.
The Confederate military prison at Andersonville, Ga., consists of a strong stockade, twenty feet in height, inclosing twenty-seven acres. The stockade is formed of strong pine logs, firmly planted in the ground. The main stockade is surronded by two other similar rows of pine logs, the middle stockade being sixteen feet high and the outer twelve feet. These are intended for offense and defense. If the inner stockade should at any time be forced by the prisoners, the second forms another line of defense, whilst, in case of an attempt to deliver the prisoners by a force operating upon the exterior, the outer line forms an admirable protection to the Confederate troops and a most formidable obstacle to cavalry or infantry. The four angles of the outer line