War of the Rebellion: Serial 121 Page 0594 PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE, ETC.

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swamps, and especially along the Flint River and large water courses, chills and fevers are common in the summer and autumn.

After careful examination I was impressed with the belief that the high lands of Andersonville and of this region of country were as healthy as any region in the world situated in the same latitudes and at the same elavation above the sea; and that this locality chosen by the Confederate States for the confinement of the Federal prisoners was much more salubrious than most of the region of Georgia lying to the south and southeast.

Animals.- The higher species of vertebrate animals appear to be comparatively rane this sandy elevated region. The opossum (Didelphys virginiana), raccoon (Procyon lotor), rabbit or American hare (Lepus americanus), for squirrel (Sciurus vulpinus), cat squirrel (Sciurus cinereus) and the most common. The deer (Cervus virginanus) is found chiefly in the large swamps and forests. Wild turkeys are said to have been abundant when the country was first reclaimed from the Indians. The gopher (Testudo polyphemus) and the salamander or pouched rat (Pseudostema bursarium) are found in considerable numbers in the dry and more sandy soils. As far as my iformation extends, these animals do not extend into the primitive region of Gerogia. The falls in the rivers may be taken as the geographical limit of these interesting and characteristic animals. The birds appear to be scarce upon the high lands and sandy hills. They abound chiefly along the langer water-courses. The mocking bird, catbird, and redbird appear to frequent the forests throughout the entire year. The wild turkey is now rare, although when this country was settled both this bird and the deer were abundant.

On the other hand, in this immediate locality vermin and insects of certain species abound to a most unfortunate extent. In this sandy soil fleas find a most suitable and healthy habitation and multiply with great rapidity, whilst mosquitoes swarn in untold myriads and render life at night all but intolerable by their everlasting buzzing and their troublesome bites. It was almost impossible to sleep, except under nets. During the first night that I slept at this place my face and hands were thoroughly peppered with the bites of these insects, and throughout my stay at Andersonville my face appeared as if covered with an eruptive disease. I observed that many of the prisoners and the Confederate soldiers had been similarly treated by the mosquitoes. It is probable that the immense amount of filth generated by the prisoners may have had much to do with the development and multiplication of these insects.

Climate.-Andresonville is situated very nearly in the same latitude with the following places; Savannah, 32o 4' 53"; Beanfort, S. C., 32o 25' 57"; Charleston, S. C., 32o 46' 33"; Montgomery, Ala., 32o 22'; Jackson, Miss., 32o 23'; Point Loma, Cal., 32o 40' 13"; San Diego, 32o 41' 58"; Tuscaloosa, 33o 12', and Vicksburg, Miss.

In the absence of direct observation at Andersonville we are able to form a pretty correct idea of the climate from the observations recorded in places of the same latitude. The mean temperature of Andersonville may be assumed, without any great deviation from the truth, at about 65o for the spring, 82o for the summer, 65o for the autumn, and 55o for the winter, and 65o for the year.

The isotherman line of Andersonville for the spring passes through or near Charleson, S. C., Columbus, Ga., Montgomery, Ala., Vicksburg Miss., Fort Scott, Tex., and rises up along the Pacific coast nearly to the thirty-fourth degree of latitude; for the summer, it commences as low as the Bahamas, near the twenty-fifth degree of north latitude,