the level of the low Atlantic islands to the elevated plateau and mountains there is an average elevation of from 1,200 to 1,500 feet, which at the lowest calculation is equivalent to three degrees of latitude, and if we add the difference of latitute we have near eight degrees, equivalent to an equal number of degrees of temperature.
Whilst the southern extremity of the low plain bordering on the sea is a region of palms, with an almost tropical climate in summer, suited to the sugar cane, orange, date, and lemon, the mountainous northern extremity rises into an elevation favorable to grain, apples, and the grasses. Between the sub-tropical climate of the sea-coast and the cooler and more bracing climate of the mountains vegetation has a wide range, cotton, rice, tobacco, wheat, adn corn, and nuerous fruits, as the fig, pomegranate, watermelon, plum peach, pear, grape, and paricot, may be added to those above enumerated.
Andersonville is situated in the western portion of Georgia, about seventeen miles due east of the western boundary of the Createcesous formation and about forty miles south of the southern boundary of the primitive region of Middle Georgia. At the time of the selection of this place for the confinement of Federal prisoners the fertile, sub-tropical rice and sea-island cotton region of Georgia was to a great extent abandoned and desolate, and the fertile hills and valleys of Northern Georgia were being devastated by the fierce conflicts of contending armies.
Character of the waters of Andersonville.- I carefully analyzed the waters from various localities and found them all remarkably pure; the waters of the well and small steams did not differ to any extent in specific gravity from that of distilled water, and they contained only mere traces of the chlorides and sulphates and of the salts of lime, magnesia, and iron. The well of water upon the summit of the hill upon which the Confederate general hospital is situated is of remarkable purity, and in fact it may be considered as equal to the purest water in the world. Its temperature, 18o C. (--F.), is sufficiently cool in this hot climate during the summer and fall months to render it refreshing.
The waters of the branches of Sweetwater Creek before entering the stockade (Confederate military prison) and the Federal hospital are equally pure, with the exception of very minute traces of vegetable matters; these, however, do not exist in sufficient quantity to be of the slightest moment in a medical point of view.
The waters of these steamers are not pleasant for drinking as the well water because their temperature is several degrees higher, and is subject to considerable variations, according to the volume and rapidity of the current and the degree of external heat. I found the temperature of the South Branch of Sweetwater Creek, above the C. S. military prison, at the close of a warm day to be 22o C. (--F.).
From this examination of the waters of Andersonville and the vicinity we are justified in the conclusion the little or no lime exists in the soil. The chemical examination of the watters corresponds, therefore, with the result of the microscopical examination of the sands and clays composing the surface of the country. The waters of the steams, wells, and springs within the stockade (C. S. military prison) and the military prison hospital were also subjected to careful chemical examination and were found in like manner to be of remarkable purity.
The waters of the steam which enters the stockade, as well as of the bold spring which mingle its waters with this steam just after its entrance into the stockade, and which are extensively used by the