War of the Rebellion: Serial 121 Page 0591 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION AND CONFEDERATE.

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alternate layers of sand and pipeclay, called most commonly soapstone. Both the sand and clay present various shades of color, from pure white to deep red adn chocolate. Under the microscope the pure white sand is found to cosnist of numberous crystalline fragments and crystals of transparent quartz.

After microscopical examination I was unable to detect any siliceous casts of animalcules of fragments of corals and shells, either in the white and vareigated clays or in the layers of sand. This, however, must be taken only as negative evidence, for the amount of matter examined even after a prolonged microscopical examination is necessarily so small that the inability to detect organic remains in the small portion subjected to this minute scrutiny does not at all allow of the general assertion that these strata are devoid of all organic remains.

Geological position.-I was unable to discover any fossils by which the geolobical position of the immediate locality could with certainty be determined. As far, however, as my knowledge of the country lying above and below extends this region should be referred to the Tertiary, or more exactly to the upper or buhr-stone strata of the Eocene formation. It would appear that the force which elevated the Appalachian Mountains expected itself chiefly in this direction, between the two system of rivers, and towards the southwest portions of Georgia and Florida and the southeastern parts of Alabama.

The relative elevation and geological position of Andersonville will be best comrehended by considering the preceding facts, in connection with a general a view of the topography and geological features of Georgia.

The State of Georgia is situated between the 30o 22' and 35o parallels of north latitude, and between 80o 48' and 85o 40' west longitude. Upon a general view of the physical structure of Georgia the observer is first struck by the natural division of the State into two portions presenting marked physical, geological, botanical, zoological, and climatic differences. We shall for the present purpose only indicate these grand divisions.

Looking inland from the Atlantic Ocean, a vast plain seems emerging from its waters, and-gently rising like the shelving botton of the ocean which washes its low shores. At first an almost underviating level, it is imperceptibly broken into hill and dale and gradually attains a height of from 300 to 500 feet above the level of the sea, when it meets the primary and metamorphic rocks at a line passing through Augusta, Macon, and Columbus, near the heads of navigation of the Savannah, Ogeechee, Oconee, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee. The lenght of this plain from north to south varies from 100 to 150 miles, and its geological formations extend from the Cretaceous to the most recent, and it forms a large part of the great Atlantic slope, extending through South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey.

North of the line which we have indicated asthe boundray of the Tertiary plain lies the other division, the primite region of Georgia crossing the State from northeast to soutwest, with a width of 160 miles at the northern limit and 100 at the southern. With an elevation of about 500 feet upon its southern border, this primitive belt soon swells into an elevated plateau, near 1,000 feet above the level of the sea, and gradually rising towards the west and north into mountains, rising from 1,000 to 3,000 feet higher. The Blue Ridge range of mountains passes near its western edge, and attaining a height from 1,200 to 4,000 feet forms the most elevated land of the State. From