War of the Rebellion: Serial 119 Page 1040 PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE, ETC.

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Garrison-Mean strength, 1,068; average number taken sick in each month, 163 1/3; average number daily sic, 44; mean average rate of daily sickness, 4 1/10 per cent; total deaths in three months, 14; average number of deaths in each month, 4 2/3, being at the rate of 52 4/10 deaths per annum for 1,000 strength. The principal diseases of garrison were as follows:

Disease. Number of cases Number of deaths

in three in three months.


Scurvy. 3 . . .

Smallpox. 28 8

Varioloid. 8 . . .

Typho-malarial fever. 27 . . .

Typhoid fever. 3 1

Malarial fever. 27 . .

Diarrhea, acute and 35 1


Erysipelas. 16 . . .

Pleuritis. 14 . . .

Bronchitis, acute. 38 . . .

Fort Delaware, which I visited on the 10th instant, stands on a in island in Delaware River. The island has an area of about seventy-five acres. Its surface is flat and below the lever of high and tide waters. A dike surrounds it and prevents overflow. The formation is alluvial, or more strictly fluvial, and like most does its of this character is miasmatic. the soil is humid and the subsoil in a state of saturation, water standing in excavations eighteen inches below the surface. Drainage is of course out of the question. The water, however, which usually stands in the drains a few inches below the surface, flows out at ebb tide. The island is well exposed to sun and air, but the winds which come to it in autumn and winter are from passing over the surrounding water apt to be damp and chilly. The prisoners of war are in barracks outside the fort. The barracks are T-shaped and single storied. The long part of each is 475 feet long, 24 feet wide, and has an average height of 16 feet. In has 19 turret and latticed ventilators, 3 doors, 28 windows on one side and 31 on the other. It has 4 stoves. The transverse parties 173 feet long and 24 feet wide. It has 7 ventilators, 10 windows on each side, and 2 stoves. The two parts form one command quarter, there being no partition between them. Bunks range one above another round both sides. the floors are in some instances loose, so that the reek of the wet earth beneath may find its way into the barracks.

At the time of my visit 1,505 men were in one of these barracks, so that each man had about 176 cubic feet of space. The barracks were at that time damp and not comfortably warm, and I suspect they have been so a part of the time during the winter. The police of these, as well as of the grounds, was in moderate condition only. Of the privies, which stand over the river, a similar remark may be made. Some, perhaps a large majority, were comfortably clad. Some had a moderate and still others an insufficient supply of clothing. The garments of a few were ragged and filthy. Each man had one blanket, but I observed no other bedding nor straw. Nearly all the men show a marked neglect of personal cleanliness. Some of them seem vigorous and well, many look only moderately well, while a considerable number have na unhealthy, a cachectic appearance.

To the prisoners of war, averaging 2,747 in number, there were issued in January, according to statements furnished me, the following provisions: 12,789 3/4 pounds of salt pork, 3,315 pounds of bacon, 8,291 1/4 pounds of salt beef, 48,675 pounds of fresh beef, 74,734 pounds of flour, 15,867 1/2 pounds of corn-meal, 4,215 4/3 pounds of beans. 3,894 pounds of rice, 4,624 1/2 pounds of coffee, 9,386 1/2 pounds of salt, 167 1/2 pounds of pepper, 20,113 pounds of potatoes, 167 gallons of molasses.

Purchased 19 barrels of onions, 150 bushels of potatoes. Reduced to different form these figures show very nearly that coffee was issued of 5 pounds 9 9/10 ounces daily for every 100 men, being 2 pounds 6 1/10 ounces less daily than the regular ration. Of bread (made of seven parts of flour and two of meal) 18 ounces were issued daily to each man. Sugar is issued at the rate of about 11 pounds daily for 100 men, being 4 pounds daily less than the full ration. Of fresh beef each man gets 18 pounds 5 3/10 ounces during thirty-one days, or 9 1/2 ounces daily. Of salt meat, including pork, bacon, and salt beef, each man gets 9 pounds 3 ounces during thirty-one days, or