company are now desirous to lay down their arms and surrender themselves as prisoners of wr it is hereby directed that all of said company who shall so voluntarily surrender themselves to an
officer of the U. S. army and deliver to him their arms shall be received and treated asprisoners of war, provided that if it shall hereafter appear that any of such men have committed any acts in violation of the laws of war such as burning of bridges and destruction of railroads, those guilty of such acts shall be liable to all penalties prescribed by the laws or war.
By order of Brigadier-General Schofield:
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.
HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF CAIRO,
Cairo, January 11, 1862.
Brigadier General E. A. PAINE,
Commanding Bird's Point, Mo.:
Iunderstand that four of our pickets were shot this morning. If this is so and appearances indicate that the assassins were citizens not regularly organized in the rebel army the whole country should be cleared out for six miles around and word given that all citizens making their appearance within those limits are liable to be shot.
To execute this patrols should be sent to in all directions and bring into camp at Bird's Point all citizens, with their subsistence, and require them to remain under pain of death and destruction of their property untill properly relieved. Let no harm befall people if they quietly submit but bring them in and place them in camp below the breast-works and have them properly guarded.
The intention is not to make political prisoners of these people but to cut off a dangerous class of spies. This applies to all classes and conditions, age and sex. If, however, women and chidren prefer other protection than we afford them they may be allowed to retire beyond the limits indicated not return until authorized.
Report to me as soon as possible every important occurrence within your command.
U. S. GRANT,
HEADQUARTERS MISSOURI STATE GUARD,
Camp at Springfield, January 12, 1862. *
Major General H. W. HALLECK,
Commanding U. S. Forces in the Western Department.
GENERAL: I have received information that as major-general commanding in this department you have either ordered or allowed the arrest of citizens in the pursuit of their usual and peaceful avocations; that men-officers and privates-belonging to this army have been taken prisoners on the Kansas border and conveyed to Fort Leaven worth, and as such and for no other established offese or crime have been shot.
In some cases I have learned that my discharged soldiers have been seized whenever and they have shown themselves and that they have been by military coercion forced into a servitude unknown to international and civilized usages in such cases.
*See Halleck to Price, p. 258.