intimidation driving them from the State. Since the initiation of these organizations anarchy has measurably prevailed and both parties have been and are yet in open armed antagonism. The Federal Army was driven from its extreme southern occupation of Carthage, the State penetrated beyond its center by the Confederate Army, aided and abetted in its march by large masses of Missourians operating singly, in squads, by individual organizations of great numerical strength, all, however, united in besieging and reducing the Federal intrenchments at Lexington; all since, however, retiring-the Confederate Army to the border, its followers to their local field of operation or to their homes, the former followed by a large Federal Army to a position in the rear of that possessed in the spring.
Thus practically closes the campaign of 1861 in Missouri. The result: the abandonment of the State by a large moiety of her best and most industrious citizens; the devastation of the property and utter ruin of a still larger portion; the rendering inoperative of civil law if not in fact its surrender to the martial and the chiefs of the marauding gangs; the utter and complete destruction of the industry and prosperity that characterized the State; the rendering it hazardous to the person or life of the law-abiding citizen to pass alone through nearly or quite every county in the State, and last but not least disaffected a material portion of the citizens, rousing the majority in the State as remarked in the outset to secession-all principally attributable I apprehend to tolerating the organization into squads and armies the disaffected of the State instead of seizing upon the leaders before their plans were fully developed, and to the rose-water policy pursued with them after committing overt acts.
The secessionists can very properly be divided and classed as follows: first, those who are in sympathy and heart only with the Confederates; second, those who abandon their homes and regularly enlist in the rebel army participating in its fortunes; third, those who compose the guerrilla portion. The two first may be said to command a certain amount of respect-the one for his neutrality the other as a belligerent-while the third is to be despised as a sneak, highwayman and bandit. It is this last class who afford the information, aid and comfort absolutely necessary to enable the Confederate Army to successfully penetrate the State from Arkansas. It is the ringleaders of this class whom it is necessary to reach and summarily treat before peace can prevail in Missouri. for without their aid and instigation the followers are harmless by reason of natural imbecility and lack of courage and the Southern army deprived and made nearly inoperative in the State for their countenance. It is not sufficient to deal with the ringleaders by arresting and imprisoning them through form of law; they must be seized singly at times and places (such as at their own fireside) when least expected; and if they offer the least resistance to be instantly shot, otherwise to be for form sake tried by military commission and fortwith shot.
Probably 100 seizures made on this principle in the State within thirty to sixty days at times and places to not indicate design or concert of action, &c., will do more to secure peace to the State than the entire army, and prevent the assassination hereafter of hundreds of loyal, peaceable citizens, besides the loss of the thousands who will fall in battle and by disease. You will perceive that I draw a marked distinction between secessionists and propose only to treat in a summary manner the ringleaders, the others being left to the civil law or to the fate of the vanquished in honorable warfare. The reason I advise summary