their separation into small bands, as I imagine, being purely the result of compulsion, rendered necessary to sustain themselves. The reservation will be necessarily large, and should be located with the least possible chance of collision or interference with our citizens. For some years provision would have to be made for their partial support, game being remarkably scarce and daily becoming more so. It should embrace extensive salmon fisheries and as much camas ground as possible. These requisites would discard the idea of locating in the Harney Lake country. Of that country I do not know enough, except as regards fishing, to judge of its adaptation in other respects. Besides, its proximity to the War Springs and Klamath Lake reserve might be found invonvenient, and would also involve the errection of a military post near it. THe Owyhee country and Snake River country being best calculated for self-support, will, I think, be found most advantageous to both parties. A reserve embracing the Jordan Creek Valley, with Jordan Creek and the Owyhee River for fishing, would be a good selection. Some objections with substantial reasons can be urged against this, among them its closeness to the mines and the necessity to the miners of having that valley for agricultural purposes, such lands on the eastern watershed of the Owyhee being remarkably scarce. In fact, so far as I have been able to judge, the Jordan Creek and Reynolds' Creek Valleys are the only tracts that can be relied upon. The latter is much more limited than the former. Again, a thoroughfare from California to this country would necessarily pass through the reserve. I do not think that mines would ever be discovered on a reserve having the head of Jordan Creek Valley for its eastern line and the Owyhee River for its western, and extending any reasonable distance north and south. The reserve, if established here, would, I think, be in Oregon. For a reservation in the Snake River country, which offers more advantages with less objection than any other that I am aware of, I would take Salmon Falls as a center, with the Malade River from its principal western source to a point where it leaves the Camas Prairie; thence across Snake River some miles above Salmon Falls to the foot-hills, say ten or twelve miles west; thence north across Middle or Bruneau River; thence east to waters of Malade. Salmon and camas are abundant. It would contain a few very small valleys, that of Bruneau being the largest and most likely to be the largest and best camp for them. There is arable land enough for its use if the Indians should in course of time be brought to its cultivation, none of which is wanted or occupied yet by our citizens, except for station purposes on the Salt Lake road, via the falls. It is, from the nature of the country, very improbable that it contains any mines, or that there will be any discovered near enough to make the lands desirable. Fort Boise is in controlling distance. It would not interfere with the settlements of Camas Prairie, most of the good land being on the opposite side of the valley. This would be in Idaho Territory.
At the time I expressed the opinion that it was practicable to collect these Indians I relied for support of the opinion upon the effect to be produced by the general approach of our settlements upon their hunting grounds and fisheries; the travel and prospecting over all parts of the country by our citizens, formerly roamed by them without fear or molestation; the various military expeditions then in course of organization to traverse their country. All these circumstances I thought would force upon them the conviction that for self-preservation they must submit and depend upon the charity and humanity of the Government for existence. The opinion then entertained has not been