distant, with prospects of finding Indians there. At 10 p. m. I proceeded with a part of my force to the point; found no Indians. Water in rocky tanks in an arroyo. Balance of the command came up next morning; distance, twelve miles. Remained here this day. Course from this camp west and northwesterly. From here I proceeded with the whole command in a west and southwest direction, crossing the range of hills mentioned and named Rattlesnake Range, from the large number of these reptiles there seen, and encamped on the south side of the Gila, some twenty-five miles below my first camp on this river, and near and below the mouth of the Tularosa Creek. Following up this valley to its head, passed over the Chiricahua Range to the head of the canon on the Arivaypa, and thence up the river some eighteen miles, and thence took a northeast direction and recrossed into the valleys of the Tularosa and the Gila and to camp. Moved a few miles above, where I left it; distance, some seventy-five miles. The first pass crossed I call the Tularosa Pass, and is a good pack trail. The one I returned by is a grand pass between Mount Graham and Mount San Marcial and practicable for a wagon road. It is some six to eight miles long and four to five miles wide at the summit, being simply an undulating plateau with good razing. Water can be had by digging near the surface, I think, as we found some in an arroyo in holes, and cottonwood grew along it. The northern slope to the Gila Valley is as gradual and smooth as a glacis, nearly, and the western or southern outlet to the "player," and nearly in a direct line to a cienega at the point of a mountain north of Dragoon Springs, is good, I think. I passed a little to the north of this line on my return through this pass, which was a fair wagon route, but would require a little work through the lower foot mesa slopes.
In sending Captain Tidball to his post I proposed directing him to make a little detour and make the examination on this side complete to connect with my own. This pass is little known, it seems. The Sonorans passed through it in 1845 on an Indian expedition. I propose calling it the Mount Graham Pass, and is the route from the west and south to this valley on the Gila for wagons. The Tularosa Creek is a clear, running stream for one mile and a half to two miles, when it sinks, but capable of irrigating much good land. There were fields of corn along the stream which looked well, and deserted rancherias. We spared this corn for the troops expected in this vicinity. There is considerable grass in this valley and adjacent on the mesas. From here I moved down the Gila to near the mouth of the San Carlos River, some twenty-five miles. After some eight miles the valley of the Gila was much narrower and not as good as above, thourgh in detached places there were some fine bottom flats or slopes. Encamped in low hills, which came to the river. Grass very good.
The next day examined a portin of the valley of the San Carlos. At night marched with a part of the command some ten miles up this valley, and surprised partially two Indian rancherias. Killed 2 and took 4 prisoners, three of whom were children. Their dog gave warning of our approach. Destroyed a number of fields of corn, wheat, and beans, with a variety of articles found in the rancherias. This is one of the richest valley bottoms I have seen, with a fine stream running through it. Is from half a mile to one mile and a half wide for fifteen miles, as far as I examined it from its mouth. I think the valley of the Bonito comes into it higher up, where I believe there is an open and fine grazing country, and am inclined to think the Indians have stock in that