two expeditions in the field the whole season for that purpose against the Snake Indians - one from Fort Dalles southeasterly and one from Fort Boise westerly and southwesterly. I shall also recommend a movement from Fort Klamath easterly; but as that post is not in my district I cannot speak so definitely in reference to it.
Thus you will perceive that it is hoped that the troops will be able to assist the mining population in prospecting, occupying, and exploring that portion of Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains, which is now a center of great attraction to the public on this coast. It contains no doubt immensely valuable mineral deposits. It is doubtless the intention of the brave and hardy miners to explore it; in any event it is my earnest wish to give them all the assistant and protection in my power. To aid in such an interesting development should be the aim and policy of the Government. Besides the ordinary wants of the Indian frontier we shall require troops for the fortifications now building at the mouth of the river. I am just advised from department headquarters that a small expedition will probably be sent from Lapwai next summer to explore the route from Lemhi (the Mormon fort) to the mouth of the Bog Horn on the Yellowstone. Until the 1st of March next large bounties are given for recruits - $302 for those who enlist and $402 to those who re-enlist. This is by recent legislation of Congress, of the 12th ultimo. This now is the time for adventurous spirits to join the First Oregon Cavalry. Except from the Snakes no Indian troubles are now anticipated. Those who may lightly say that troops are not wanted are little aware how much the profound peace and security which now reigns on our whole Indian frontier is due to the movements of the troops, and especially of the Oregon cavalry, during the last two summers.
For two summers Colonel Maury, with the gallant and efficient regiment under his command, has taken the field upon the emigrant road. He was also ordered to remain out until the end of October. He did not come in prematurely only to hear of a massacre of emigrants in his rear. In May last six companies of troops were assembled at Fort Lapwai, on the Nez Perce Reservation, to attend the great council convened to effect a new treaty with that tribe. These troops were not needed for influence over that tribe, although it was well to hold in salutary check the warlike minority of the Nez Perces. But the council was attended by runners from all the surrounding tribes; most of them had (as the Palouse, Yakimas, Coeur d'Alenes, Cayuses, &c.) been once at war with us, while the Nez Perces had remained friendly. They were eagerly waiting the hour when the Nez Perces would strike, as, if they would only say the word, many allies, full of ancient grudges, would cluster around them from those tribes, hugely delignted at the prospect of getting the Nez Perces into a fight.
The establishment of the military post at Fort Lapwai in October, 1862, and this assemblage of troops at Lapwai has thus a most salutary effect, evincing that the power of the Government was not gone, as the rebel sympathizers has endeavored to instill. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, and those movements may have anticipated and frustrated hostile combinations. Colonel Maury proceeded from Fort Lapwai through the Salmon River country and thrant road. In October, 1862, the moment I knew of the first discoveries of gold near Boise, I wrote to the War Department recommending the establishing of Fort Boise. In January the orders of the Secretary of War were received for the establishment of Fort Boise. In June it was established, and it will always be an important and central point