term applied to several bands or tribes of Indians quite distinct in language and characteristics and inhabiting different tracts of country, but so connected by relationship (having intermarried with each other for long periods), and by long continued friendly intercourse, that they are usually regarded by whites and neighboring Indian tribes as one people. These bands are the Winnas, Bannocks, Shoshones, Modocs, and Klamaths, and probably several others. They own and inhabit the country lying south and southeast of the lands purchased by the confederated tribes and bands in Middle Oregon-the Walla Walla, Cayuses, and Umatillas and the Nez Perces, by the treaties of June 25, 1865, June 9, 1855, and June 11, 1855, including the southern portion of Idaho, the southeastern part of Oregn, and perhaps a small portion of California and Nevada. On the map herewith inclosed I have delineated the tracts purchased by the treaties named and the lands owned by the different bands known as Snakes. These boundaries, and indeed that part of the map itself, are not from actual survey, and therefore make no pretensions to mathematical accuracy, but for general purposes they will be found sufficiently correct. No exact statement of the number of these Indians can be made, but the best information I have obtained leads me to estimate them from 5,000 to 6,000 souls of which probably 1,500 are in Idaho Territory, the remainder in Oregon. They have had but little intercourse with the whites, and that little of a hostile character. The recent discoveries of gold in various parts of their country on the Snake, Boise, Powder, Burnt, and Malheur Rivers, have attracted crowds of miners who are pursuing their avocation with constant interruptions from the depredations of the Indians. Many murders and thefts have been committed by the latter, which of course have been retailed by the whites. In fact an actual state of war his existed there for the last twelve months. The number of miners in the country has been much increased since last year, and is still rapidly increasing by emigration from the settled portion of Oregon and from California. The number there now probably exceeds 10,000 men. In addition to this a very large emigration is now en route from the States east of the Rocky Mountains, which will reach the Snake country in the autumn of the present year. I need not dwell on the importance of protecting this large population from the hostilities of the treacherous and warlike Snakes. Unless prompt measure are taken by the Government to prevent, the loss of life and property will be immenseest of Brigadier General Benjamin Alvord, commanding District of Oregon, I visited Fort Vancouver about the middle of April for the purpose of conferring with him in regard to Indian affairs east of the Cascade Range, and particularly in the Snake country, and as to the best method of restoring and maintaining peace. The general concurred with me in regarding a war with the Indian inevitable, and regretted his inability to send troops to that region sooner than midsummer, he deeming it advisable to employ the whole available force in the Nez Perce region until the treaty now negotiating with those Indians was concluded. Much good might be accomplished in my opinion by the Indian Department by holding a council or councils with those tribes, making them a few presents negotiating the purchase of their lands. An appropriation of $20,000 was made by act of Congress, approved July 5, 1862, for "defraying expenses of negotiating treaty with Shoshone or Snake Indians," and in my opinion the public intervests urgently demand that an effort be made to accomplish this object.
I regard this appropriation as amply sufficient to enable the commissioners to treat for the purchase of all the lands in Oregon
east of the