Department to establish it. And I will accordingly respectfully request that this letter may be forwarded to the Headquarters of the Army, and I confidently ask General Wright to concur in the recommendation, as he two years ago, when in command of the Department of Oregon, made a report in favor of the same step. His dispatch on that subject was dated October 10, 1860. Every consideration which then called for it now applies with tenfold force. The whole route from Walla Walla to Fort Boise (250 miles) is being settled with either farmers or miners. First comes Grande Roude Valley, containing some inviting agricultural land, where there is a considerable settlement. Next, Powder River. On this river the gold mines have attracted many people and a large share of the emigration this fall. Auburn, on Powder River, twenty-five miles west of the emigrant road, contains now 300 houses. Next comes the mines on Burnt River, and lastly the recently discovered and very inviting gold mines on Boise River. I am satisfied from personal inquiry of reliable persons whom I met in Portland that there have been discovered such attractive mines on that river that there can be no doubt there will be a rush of thousands in that direction next spring. I append to this letter one newspaper statement on this subject, which I have reason to believe is a fair sample of the well-vouched reports from Boise River.
Two years ago the main object in the establishment of a post in that vicinity was the protection of the annual emigration from the Mississippi Valley. Now it is also needed for the protection of the settlements, for, as the general commanding the department well knows, the Snake Indians are, and have for years been, very hostile. They have made several attacks this season, killing several persons, as, for instance, the emigrants, who, unfortunately, leaving the old road, crossed the Snake River above Fort Hall and kept north of that river. About the 9th of August they made an attack on Boise River on a train, the captain of which was named Zimmerman. The same party had been attacked on the 9th of July near Soda Springs.
A party of emigrants who attempted to take the southerly emigrant road, intending to enter Oregon at Rouge River Valley, were attacked by the Snakes some time in September about a day's journey after leaving the main emigrant road. Two parties of miners on Boise River have also been attacked. The report that fifty-seven miners had been killed on Burnt River by the Snakes about the 19th of September was an utter fabrication. As a large share of the emigrants have stopped in that country and not come to this region, it is very difficult to procure the true statistics of these transactions. I have made it my aim to procure such in every way. Lieutenant-Colonel Maury, commanding the expedition upon the emigrant road, in his letter of the 23rd ultimo, already forwarded to you, says that the emigrants "have met with very little trouble from the Indians, and that at or near Raft River, Fort Hall being the focus of their operations east and west. " The emigrants with Captain Crawford have also been well protected. But I am satisfied that many attacks have been made which could not necessarily come to the knowledge of those officers. Colonel Maury's expedition has been very successful in protecting the emigration, and it is now fortunately in the very position to protect the whites, who in large numbers are prospecting for gold on the Boise River. These miners are mostly armed. I hear of one party of 75 men and another of 100 men starting for that river two weeks ago. They will be likely to meet Colonel Maury about Fort Boise.
Colonel Maury was not able to get possession of any of the guilty authors of the massacre of September, 1860. My instructions to him of