working with even more rigor than formerly at a few miles distant from any point where U. S. troops are stationed. I find that the negro much sooner understands and more readily accepts his status than does the former master his, the greatest trouble being in convincing the planter that he is no longer slave-holder, and can no longer whip and chase with bloodhounds freemen he once called chattel property. I am frequently told by the planter, "If we cannot whip the negro, they and I cannot live in the same country." The revolution is so complete, the change so radical, that it seems impossible for them to comprehend it. They cannot comprehend how the negro can work without the whip. I find in every instance where the planters have taken a sensible, honorable course, explaining to them their status, they have less trouble than ever before, even though they can only promise the negro subsistence and clothing for themselves and families, which is about as much as many of the planters can do for the present season. Where they have trouble they make it themselves by trying to deceive the negroes or by abusing them. Until Government agents can be appointed and send to each locality, I would earnestly recommend that an order be issued by the proper authority similar to the one issued by General Schofield at Raleigh, N. C., a copy of which I inclose.* The greatest trouble and embarrassment I experienced was for want of such an order to authorize me to act. With such an order I should find no difficulty in settling all differences. I find in the minds o some a hope that something will yet turn up which will give them at least a life lease of slavery. So ardent is this hope in some instances that secessionists (and i think a large majority of them) would welcome any foreign power that would humble or destroy our National Government, thinking at least they might have the satisfaction of seeing their enemies humbled. This feeling is confined principally to the wealthy planters, or those who were formerly wealthy, and manifests itself at points remote from where our troops are located, but does not seem to be participated in by returned Confederate soldiers generally. They usually manifest a very kindly feeling.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
HORACE N. HOWLAND,
Colonel, Commanding Detachment.
HDQRS. 6TH DIV., CAVALRY CORPS, MILITARY DIVISON OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Numbers 139
Pulaski, Tenn., June 27, 1865.
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IV. Colonel T. H. Butler, Fifth Indiana Cavalry, will turn over the command of the First Brigade to Colonel Elisha Mix, Eighth Michigan Cavalry. Colonel James Biddle, Sixth Indiana Cavalry, will turn over the command of the Second Brigade to Colonel F. M. Davidson, Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry.
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By command of Brevet Major-General Johnson:
E. T. WELLS,
*See Vol. XLVII, Part III, p. 503.