Invariably there will be kept a journal of march of the form prescribed in Army Regulations, edition 1863, page 99, et seq., except that the column headed "Weather" will be headed "Bearings," and will contain the magnetic bearings of consecutive portions of the road, and that the column of distances will be kept in yards instead of miles. A convenient scale is five minutes between two consecutive lines of ruled letter paper, which corresponds to about 430 yards passed over by infantry. This journal will contain all the data for a map of the road and its vicinity, so clear as to be intelligible to others besides the maker and to admit of being platted by them. The remarks will contain all important military information which can be more readily noted in writing than in drawing. The more important topographical features are: First, roads; second, water courses; third, means of crossing water-courses; fourth, differences of level; fifth, woods, and sixth, towns.
1. Roads.-State their kind, as shell, plank, corduroy, soil, &c.; their condition, as muddy, miry, sandy, dusty, &c.; average width, whether flush with the ground, or contracted in a cutting or an embankment or between woods or marshes, &c.; whether there are cross-roads connecting them, the character of the bordering ground, and, if cultivated, with what crops, the nearest principal places on both sides of the road on the cross and branch roads; if lined with fences, hedges, ditches, levees, &c.; sharp turns; bad places needing repairs when left and what sort, &c.
2. Water-courses.-State their width, depth, and velocity at present stage of water, at low water, and at high water; whether subject to sudden rises, character of bottom, hard, soft, quicksand, &c.; nature of banks, steep or gentle slope, level or broken ground, grassy, wooded; tidal or not; fit to drink or not; any islands.
3. Means of crossing water-courses.-Fixed bridges, floating bridges, ferries, and boats, fords. Necessity for repairs and fitness for passage of the three arms when left. Nature of approaches, as hilly or level, broken or smooth, wooded or open, concave or convex, which bank commands the other and how much, &c.; how best destroyed or replaced; best positions for new ones and material for constructing them; how to be fortified, defended, or attacked. If a bridge, its length, width, and height above surface of water; nature, as piled, stone, brick, or wood arches trusses, trestles, &c.; dimensions of piers, width and number of bays, span, rise, and thickness of arches, &c. For floating bridges, boats, or ferries, time of passage and capacity of transportation for one trip, for each arm, separately or mixed; how and to what extent this allows of being increased and means available for this. For fords, the form and nature of the banks at each end, nature of bottom, marks and directions to determine the path, greatest depth of water and where situated; whether others exist and where; whether they are likely to become suddenly impassable.
4. Differences of level.-Highest and lowest points in slopes in road, with approximate difference. Eminences in sight on either side of road within cannon range, with approximate height above nearest point of road. Slopes requiring drag chains to descend or increasing teams to ascend; commanding point on banks for covering or forcing passage of streams; advantageous positions for batteries, cuttings, embankments, marshes, prairies, &c.
5. Woods.-Kinds of trees, free from underbrush, traversable for artillery, cavalry, or infantry, distance from the road; whether they can be skirted; are there houses within clearings; if so, how large; is the ground level, broken, marshy, cut with ravines or streams, &c.; nature