3,000 more in a short time. General Sully reports that runners have come in to Fort Rice, on the Upper Missouri, announcing the approach of 3,000 lodges (about 7,000 warriors) to that post to see him and beg for peace. In order to avoid the certain results of the present system of treaty making by Indian agents, involving the expenditure of much money and the presenting of large quantities of goods to Indians but recently hostile, who regard such gifts as bribes dictated by fear, I have instructed the commanding officers on the frontier that Indians in actual hostility must be dealt with by the military alone, and that all Indians who have been recently in arms against the whites and who are now coming in to beg for peace, are considered prisoners of war under the exclusive control of the military authorities. No presents are to be given to them and to treaties made, beyond the mere understanding to be had with them by the military authorities, that so long as the Indians keep the peace they will not be molested by the U. S. troops; that if they continue to be hostile the troops will continue to pursue and kill them, and will continue to establish new military posts in their country and drive off or destroy all their game. The troops also guarantee the Indians against outrages by the whites, and will assist all who come in and surrender to defend themselves against other hostile tribes. The Indians perfectly understand such a treaty as this and will keep it much better than such treaties as have hitherto been made. I have directed commanding officers on the frontier not to permit any treaties to be made with Indians other than such as are herein specified. There are large sums appropriated by Congress at the last session to make treaties with Indians. It is simply a waste of money and will only lead to renewed breaches of the peace in order that new treaties may be made and more expended. I need not tell you that the present system of Indian management is bad. Your experiencr has long since made this very clear, I do not doubt. I send you the paper of Honorable J. R. Brown, of Minnesota, on this subject, which was inadvertently left out of my last letter to you on this subject. It is full of wisdom, and I think expresses the experience of every honest man who has lived on the frontier and knows the history of Indian management. The Cheyennes will probably be the only tribe on the plains west of the Missouri which will remain hostile this summer. With them we can easily deal. The overland routes are secure and will, I think, remain so. Some plan for the disposition and management of the large numbers of Indians coming in to surrender ought to be adopted. It is certain that they ought not to be rewarded by presents and by arrangements to pay them regular annuities of money and goods for the outrages they have committed. The practice seems to be to reward hostile Indians but no peaceful Indians. It seems to me best to keep all these Indians under military control, according to the orders I have made on the subject, copies of which were forwarded to you a short time since. My letter to the Secretary of War, published in the Official Army and Navy Gazette of April 26, 1864, I think covers this whole subject, and I trust it will be sustained by the Government, as it promises peace at a small cost of money or life. *
I transmit inclosed a letter just received from General Curtis. + I do not attach much importance to the stampede they seem to be getting up in Minnesota. It has been of yearly occurrence ever since I have
*See Pope to Stanton, Vol. XXXIV, Part II, p. 259.
+See Curtis to Bell, May 11, p. 412.