War of the Rebellion: Serial 090 Page 0970 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., MD., AND PA. Chapter LV.

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ing of grievances of which they are subjected in being forced to drill, &c., by your referred to these headquarters August 26, 1864, for report as to whether white men were also subject to the same drill as is required from the men of color. In reply, I would respectfully state that white men have been organized into companies and regiments, and are required to drill. Unfortunately, Governor Bradford has declined to recognize their organization and commission their officers. There are now three regiments organized. Shortly after the organization of the whites was begun that of the blacks was attempted. As Governor Bradford declined to have anything to do with the enterprise, the State constitution not recognizing colored men as subject to militia service, I assumed the business myself and gave it in charge of Colonel Bawman, who is quite popular with the class and has proven himself their devoted friend. It was desirable to enroll all the able-bodied colored men of the city, whether free or slaves. To do that by asking them to volunteer was impossible, as many of them are the slaves or employes of secession citizens, who would, of course, prohibit such action, hence my measure had to be arbitrary. That some instances of harshness have ensued is not un likely, but the sufferers had only to complain to me to have their wrongs redressed.

It is proper to add that among the blacks, as with the whites, there are lazy and trifling people who do nothing without compulsion, and complain when it is exerted. Besides, the disaffected whites do not hesitate to fill the minds of the simple and credulous colored men with false ideas of my purposes toward them in this organization.

If I had authority to answer two questions of the complainants, there would be no difficulty in the matter: First, if, when organized, they should be called out to defend the city, will they be paid for it? Second, should they be killed or disabled while so engaged, would they or their representatives by placed on the pension list? It would oblige me very much to receive instructions on these points from the honorable Secretary of War.

Finally, the necessity for the measure complained of is simply that there must be more troops to defend the city of Baltimore than can always be spared for the purpose. I thought, and yet think it possible, to meet this necessity by stringent organization of the citizens, black and white.

Without an interference with the constitution of the State, I cannot deprive Governor Bradford of his lawful control of the able-bodied whites. It is different, however, with the blacks, whom the Governor repudiates for militia purposes; and as to these latter I will see that they are not abused.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Major-General, Commanding.


Chambersburg, Pa., August 30, 1864.

Colonel D. P. WHITING, U. S. Army,

Commanding Fort Mifflin:

COLONEL: In reply to your communication of the 25th instant, I am directed by the commanding general to say that by General Orders, No. 48, current series, Department of the Susquehanna, Fort Mifflin is made a separate post, and that hereafter you will report directly to