such jealousies, encouraged for wicked purposes by unscrupulous politicians. The men who, or any purpose, now continue to encourage them, ought to be held as public enemies-enemies of our Union and our peace-and should be treated as such. Common feelings, common sympathies, are the necessary foundations of a common free government. I am proud to say that the people of Pennsylvania feel every blow at any of her sister States as an assault upon themselves, and give to them all that hearty good will, the expression of which is sometimes more important, under the infliction of calamity, than mere material aid.
It is unnecessary to refer to the approach of the rebel army up the Shenandoah Valley on the 3rd day of July last; to the defeat of General Wallace on the Monocacy; their approach to and threatening of the capital; or the their destruction of property and pillage of the counties of Maryland, lying on our border.
these events have passed into history, and the responsibilities will be settled by the judgment of the people. At that time a call was made upon Pennsylvania for volunteers, to be mustered the service of the United States, and "to serve for 100 days in the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and at Washington and its vicinity."
Notwithstanding the embarrassments which complicated the orders for their organizations and muster, six regiments were enlisted and organized, and a battalion of six companies. The regiments were withdrawn from the State, the last leaving the 29th day of July. I desired that at least part of this force should be confined in their service to the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and made such an application to the War Department. As the proposition did not meet their approbation it was rejected and the general order changed to include the States named and Washington and its vicinity.
No part of the rebel army at that time had come within the State. The people of the border counties were warned, and removed their stock, and at Chambersburg and York were organized and armed for their own protection.
I was not officially informed of the movements of the Federal armies, and, of course, not of the strategy of their commanders; but it was stated in the newspapers that the rebel army was closely pursued after it had crossed the Potomac, and was retiring up the Valley of the Shenandoah. Repeated successes of our troops were also announced, and the people of this State had just cause to believe that quite a sufficient Federal force had been thrown forward for its protection upon the line of the Potomac.
On Friday, the 29th day of July, the rebel brigades of Johnson and mcCausland, consisting of 2,500 to 3,000 mounted men, with six guns, crossed the Potomac at Clear Spring ford. They commenced crossing at 10 a. m. and marched directly on Mercersburg. There were but forty-five men picketed in that direction, under the command of Lieutenant McLean, U. S. Army, and as the enemy succeeded in cutting the telegraph communication, which from that point had to pass west by way of Bedford, no information could be sent to General Couch, by telegraph, who was then at Chambersburg. The head of this column reached Chambersburg at 3 a. m. on Saturday, the 30th.
The rebel brigades of Vaughn and Jackson, numbering about 3,000 mounted men, crossed the Potomac at about the same time at or near Williamsport-part of the command advanced on Hagerstown; the main body moved on the road leading from Williamsport to Greencastle.
48 R R-VOL XLIII, PT I