commanding, and First Division West Virginia Cavalry, Brigadier-General Duffie commanding. Brigadier-General Averell's division was then at Cumberland, Md., and Brigadier-General Duffie's at Hancock, Md. Both of these divisions were ordered to join the army by the shortest practicable route. At this time a brigade was formed, consisting of the Second Massachusetts, Twenty-second Pennsylvania, Cole's cavalry, and a detachment of the Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and placed under command of Colonel Lowell, Second Massachusetts Cavalry, and assigned to the First Division as the Third Brigade. I left Harper's Ferry, Va., August 10, with the First Division Cavalry, General Merritt commanding, in the advance. Arriving at Charlestown, Va., the Reserve, First, and Second Brigades took the direct road the Berryville, Va., the Third Brigade was sent to Summit Point, Va., thus placing it on the right of the army and the Reserve, First, and Second Brigades on the left. Arriving at Berryville, a reconnaissance was sent in the direction of Winchester, as far as the Opequon Creek, driving the enemy's pickets across the creek. The main body took the Berryvile and Millwood pike as far as the Stone Chapel, about three miles, turned to the right to go over to the Millwood and Winchester pike. About half a mile from the latter pike the enemy's cavalry was met in pretty strong force. They were immediately engaged and driven from the field. The command then went into camp in the neighborhood for the night.
At daylight the next day (11th) the Reserve, First, and Second Brigades moved on the Millwood and Winchester pike to the Opequon Creek. From this point the First Brigade (Brigadier-General Custer) was sent in the direction of Winchester, driving the enemy's cavalry about three miles, and within two miles of the town, on their infantry lines, and remained in that position until the arrival of our infantry at the Millwood and Winchester pike, near the Opequon Creek. In the meantime the Reserve and Second Brigades (Brigadier-General Merritt) moved round still farther to the left to get possession of the Front Royal and Winchester pike. About a mile from the pike they met the enemy's cavalry in force with artillery. Brigadier-General Merritt immediately engaged them, and after a severe fight he drove them across the pike and three miles back in the direction of Newtown, Va., on the Valley pike. In the meantime the First Brigade (Brigadier-General Custer) was brought up, and the whole division was advanced in the direction of Newtown. Advancing about a mile and a half they were opposed by a strong force; not being able to tell whether they were dismounted cavalry or infantry an attack was ordered-the attacking party being dismounted. After a very severe fight the enemy was driven from his first position. By prisoners being captured we learned that it was Gordon's division of infantry, the rear guard of Major-General Early's army. The attack was immediately suspended, and our force fell back about a mile and a half and went into camp, it being now after dark. About this time the Third Brigade (Colonel Lowell), with the exception of on regiment, joined us from the right of the army.
On the next morning (12th) the cavalry moved in the direction of Newtown, on the Strasbug and Winchester pike, the Third, First, and Reserve Brigades moved in the direction of Strasburg. The Second Brigade (Brevet Brigadier-General Devin) moved west in the direction of Fawcett's Gap, and then toward Cedar Creek on the Back road about three or four miles from the main pike. These columns moved steadily along toward Creek, Va.,skirmishing slightly