War of the Rebellion: Serial 088 Page 0575 Chapter LIV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - UNION.

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eration must be sacrificed. For this purpose a clear view of the enemy is necessary, and judgment must be used in the selection of the different projectiles, according to the nature of the ground and the object to be attained. Concentration of fire, rather than its distribution, is of importance; hence the guns should be as much as possible so placed that their fire may converge on important points, and should not be too much scattered over the field. In a hilly or undulating country a moderate elevation, which gives a good view of the ground, is the best position for artillery. Too much elevation should be avoided, since the fire is more effective in proportion as the projectiles pass more closely to the ground. Ground covered by bushes, trees, or other obstructions is not favorable to the use of artillery. It is advantageous under all circumstances to fire at lines obliquely, and at columns in the direction of their greatest depth. Against walls, the most effective projectile is solid shot. Shot and, in rare cases, shell should be used against log stockades, barricades, & c., and for sweeping a wood - to which latter purpose shrapnel and canister are not well adapted - and also against deep columns of cavalry, taken in the prolongation of the column. There has been too much neglect of solid-shot fire from the smooth-bore guns, and altogether too much dependence placed upon shell. In the above cases percussion shell fired direct so as to act first as solid shot or, at need, shrapnel without the fuse are the best for rifled field guns. Canister is to be employed at close quarters. It is effective both from the wide spread of its balls and from the rapidity, with which it may be fired, accurate aiming not being necessary. Canister may be fired with great advantage into the edge or skirts of a wood which is about to be charged by our infantry, and against the flank of an enemy's battery at close quarters, under which circumstances the canister-shot are very destructive to both men and horses. The prevailing tendency to the use of canister is too great. Shrapnel may be considered as a long-range canister, the iron case or shell carrying the bullets safely over the ground before distributing them. It should be chiefly used against troops which are stationary or not moving rapidly, or directed against fixed points over which an enemy is passing. Distances must be accurately judged, the projectiles carefully prepared, the fire slow and deliberate, and its effect well noted, with a view to the correction of errors. Shrapnel is too after wasted. Artillery officers should recollect that, although it is the most effective and powerful of projectiles if well used, it is also the most harmless and contemptible if used badly; that the elements of uncertainty in its effect are numerous, and therefore in its use nothing should be left to chance which can be made certain by care and attention. Shrapnel should never be fired rapidly, except against large and dense masses, and then solid shot would generally be better. An intelligent officer, or non-commissioned officer, should be detailed to watch the effect of each shot, and to report what correction appears necessary. When time presses and observation of the shrapnel fire is difficult, canister is preferable, if the range is such as to admit of its use. Shrapnel fire is very effective against lines of troops, columns, or batteries which are stationary upon open ground. It is not to be used against troops which are covered from view by the conformation of the ground, or by obstacles of any kind, except only when it is known that the enemy is stationed within a certain distance in the rear of a given obstacle, as in the case of field works, against the defenders of which shrapnel is effective. The allowance of shrapnel for the light 12-pounder gun is largely in excess of the ordinary requirements of battle. By reference to the table for packing ammunition chests it will be