War of the Rebellion: Serial 084 Page 0193 Chapter LIII. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - UNION.

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no need and would be of no benefit to them. Next year they will be able to dispose of a sufficient quantity of grain, &c., to supply themselves with meat, and then they will cease to be a further expense to the Government.

I am sorry that I cannot report quite so favorably of the progress in agriculture of the Apaches. They number 392 souls and are averse to labor, differing materially in this respect from the Navajoes, who, as a people, are industrious. They have but about 160 acres under cultivation, and this has been mainly done by hired labor under the direction of Mr. Labadie, Indian agent. From the facilities which have been afforded this gentleman, and the number of farm hands employed by him, I should have expected a far greater amount of labor performed, even without any assistance from the Indians. Different and more energetic measures must be taken as regards them. I have had a talk with their principal men and received from them assurances of their perfect content and their satisfaction with their treatment. From both the Navajo, and Apache chiefs, as well as from the commanding officer, I learn that citizens of New Mexico have been endeavoring to retard the work of civilizing these Indians by circulating the report that they are to be again removed back to their country. I am glad to state, however, that these untruths were listened to unheeded, nor do I think that it had the effect of making a single Indian work with lessened zeal to raise his crops. There have also been citizens amongst them for purposes of illegitimate trade, seeking even to swindle them out of the few farming tools which they possess. To prevent citizens from having communication with the Indians is difficult, owing to the extent of the reservation, and the distance of the post from its northwestern limits. I would respectfully suggest that Companies G and L, First Cavalry New Mexico Volunteers, be permanently stationed at the point where the road from the settlements enters the reservation. A chain of pickets from this command with a mounted patrol would effectually keep off all not having legitimate business on the reserve. It surprises me that with the experience the people of New Mexico possess, there could be any so blind to their best interests as to endeavor for small gain to jeopardize the peace of the Territory by tampering with these people and undo the work of nearly two centuries. Should any such be discovered I shall treat them with the severity due to public enemies, and upon conviction they shall be punished. The experiment of placing these Indians on reservations, thereby converting them from lawless savages into industrious and peaceful citizens, is now being tried for the first time in New Mexico, and it has been so far attended with all the success which the most earnest friends of humanity and of the Territory could desire. It is now, so to speak, in its infancy, and lawless, unworthy citizens must not be permitted to prevent its arriving at maturity. I am happy to state that the Navajoes and Apaches live in the most perfect harmony. But very few causes of complaint exist, and those of an unimportant nature incident to all communities and easy of adjustment. The idle and worthless, few in number, have occasionally of late stolen some little corn from the thrifty. This of course would increase, if permitted, as the grain ripened. I shall take measures to prevent it. Sometimes their horses commit trespass; this I will also regulate. These are all the grievances I have as yet heard of.

There are about 15,000 acres of arable and of best quality northwest of the post, which is amply sufficient for the wants of all the Indians, and after a few more acequias are made this tract can be watered with

13 R R-VOL XLI, PT II