and forward of Hood's and Polk's troops. At this time could be heard officers all around reading orders to regiments and cheers of troops. Some regiments in field where headquarters were. Polk detains two of Hood's brigades, as Hardee on his left had not closed up a gap. Headquarters wagons sent beyond Cassville. Corps commanders and Wheeler arrive.
Instructions to change line. Generals J[ohnston] and M[ackall] and Polk ride on high hill overlooking town and back from original line. New line marked out, and troops rapidly formed on it and along a ride. Late in afternoon considerable skirmishing and artillery. Enemy's skirmishers occupied town. At one time confusion; wagons, artillery; and cavalry hasten back; noise, dust, and heat. Disorder checked; wagons made to halt. Consternation of citizens; many flee, leaving all; some take away few effects, some remain between hostile fires.
General M[ackall] and I remain several hours on roadside (Cassville and Cartersville road). Governor Harris brings lunch. General J[ohnston], about 5 p. m. in afternoon, rides down to Hardee's, leaving General M[ackall]; I remain. About 6 p. m. General M[ackall] sets out to find our camp; meets the general, and both go back too a field near road in rear of Polk, as skirmishing brisk. General J[ohnston] tells Governor Harris he will be ready for and happy to receive enemy next day. Wheeler comes up; cavalry falls back behind infantry. Dark ride to camp. By a muddy brook near General P[olk's] find supper ready and tents pitched. After supper, General J[ohnston] walks over to General P[olk]. General M[ackall] and rest turn in. Soon General J[ohnston] sends word by courier to send him two of inspectors-general mounted; then one of Polk's staff officers brings word that all the staff must report mounted; I was directed to remain.
General Mackall returned to camping-place, where all staff waited until about 2 a. m., when they rode to Cartersville, passing trains and artillery parked in field; all hurried off without regard to order. Reach Cartersville before day, troops come in after day. General Johnston comes up-all hurried over bridges; great confusion, caused by mixing trains and by trains which crossed first parking at river's edge and others winding around wrong roads; about 2,000 wagons crowded on bank.
Friday, May 20 (written May 22).-General Mackall and staff reach Cartersville about 4 a. m., General J[ohnston] later; confusion, hurrying wagons and artillery across Etowah bridge. Supply train parked on plain on south side; two pontoon bridges, one wagon trestle bridge, one railroad bridge, wagons and artillery blocked up on road; trains mixed. Dust and heat, country rough and hilly, little water near railroad, army in line on north side. Wagons move toward Allatoona on two roads. After great delay trains removed out of range. In afternoon headquarters established near Moore's house (Hardee's headquarters), near a crossing of railroad and lower Allatoona road, one mile and a half from Allatoona. Etowah Iron Works-most valuable machinery, teams, wagons, and negroes removed by G. W. Smith. Bridges burned in p. m., including railroad bridge by mistake. Troops jaded, artillery and cavalry horses particularly; Georgia troops dropped off; all in pretty good spirits up to falling back from Cassville. Change of line not understood but thought all right, but night retreat after issuing general order impaired confidence; great alarm in country around. Troops think no stand to be