lective experience, it is hoped may not prove wholly valueless. The observations and suggestions which are called forth by the discussion of the great questions involved are offered in no querulous or fault-finding spirit, but with a sincere desire to do something, however little, to promote the interests of the medical department of the army, the honor of the profession, and the advancement of the common objects, science, military efficiency, humanity, and true civilization. The status of the medical profession is the best index of the state of true civilization in any age or nation.
The Army of the Ohio, which participated in the Atlanta campaign, was composed of the Twenty-third Army Corps and a body of cavalry, sometimes called a command and sometimes a corps, under Major-General Stoneman. At the commencement of the campaign, the Second and Third Divisions, of the Twenty-third Army Corps, were stationed on the line of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, extending as far as Russellville. The cavalry was at Mount Sterling, Ky., receiving a new outfit of horses and equipments. the infantry commenced its march in the latter part of April, and headquarters moved from Knoxville on the last day of the month. The rendezvous was made at Red Clay, Ga., and I joined the command on the 6th of May. The two divisions which had been on duty in East Tennessee, it must be remembered, had passed through all the toil and hardships of the siege of Knoxville, and the subsequent winter and spring campaigns. The First Division, under Brigadier-General Hovey, joined the army at Cleveland, on the march to Red Clay. It was composed of newly enlisted recruits, many of whom were old men and boys, who had been mustered into service without critical inspection. The proportion of disability in the division has been, as a consequence, always exceedingly large. No specific report of this division has been made, for the reason that it was very soon merged into the other two divisions.
The organization of the medical department of the army was as follows: Surg. Edward Shippen, U. S. Volunteers, medical director of the Twenty-third Army Corps; Surg. George A. Collamore, One hundredth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, surgeon in chief Third Division; Surg. J. W. Lawton, U. S. Volunteers, surgeon in chief Second Division; and Surg. J. H. Spurrier, One hundred and twenty-third Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, surgeon in chief First Division.
Before leaving Knoxville I organized a special operating board, composed of the following officers: Surg. C. S. Frink, U. S. Volunteers; Surg. C. W. McMillin, First Regiment East Tennessee Volunteer Infantry; Surg. S. K. Crawford, Fiftieth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry; Acting Assistant Surgeon J. E. Patterson, U. S. Army, was subsequently added to the board, and directed them to be prepared to set out for the field at a moment's notice.
The plan of conduct of the field, and the arrangements for conveying supplies for each brigade, are appended. The ambulance order had in the mean time been received, and the system which I adopted previously so far modified as to conform to it. A competent officer, Captain S. Windecker, One hundred and third Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, was assigned as chief of ambulances, but great difficulty was experienced in obtaining a sufficient number of vehicles fit for use, and mules of good quality. As soon as railroad communication was opened with Knoxville in the spring, I had caused a large quantity of medical and hospital supplies to be accu-