Second. The new defenses of Atlanta, and the Savannah campaign, including the time from the 3rd of September, 1864, to the 25th of January, 1865.
Upon our occupation of the city of Atlanta, acting under instructions from the major-general commanding, I made an examination of the lines occupied by the enemy during the so-called siege, with a view to their modification for the use of our forces. Their development was found to be about twelve miles and was considered greater than could be held by such a force as would, in any event, be left as the garrison. I made further examinations of the ground interior to the old rebel lines to ascertain whether new lines of much shorter development could not be located, and selected the system of heights nearest the center of the city. This line was less than three miles in extent, but passed through the northern part of the town, rendering the destruction of a great many buildings necessary. The general commanding ordered the adoption of this line and directed the work to proceed, but subsequently suspended the operation of the order until greater necessity should arise.
Meanwhile every effort was being made to increase the efficiency of the engineer organization. The chief engineer of the Army of the Cumberland was directed to take the necessary steps to have the First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics ordered to the front. This regiment, or rather eight companies of it, arrived at Atlanta about the last of September. Two more companies subsequently joined, but the remaining two companies did not reach the regiment for some months.
The major-general commanding having directed that the new line of fortifications be proceeded with, the entire engineer force was set at work to construct the profiles and revetments. General Corse, then commanding at Rome, Ga., on the 29th of September, made an urgent requisition for an engineer officer to examine and improve the defenses of that town. Lieutenant Ludlow, Corps of Engineers, was sent.
The first infantry details for work on the fortifications were called for on the 3rd of October, and numbered 2,000 men. On the 5th of October I telegraphed to General Sherman, then at Big Shanty, as follows:
The new line of works is in defensible condition from the redoubt where the photographs were taken (Redoubt Numbers 7) around to the prolongation of the same street eastward. I have positions completely finished this evening for thirty guns; the platform are laid and the embrasures revetted for that number, and I can finish a number more to-morrow.
The line represented as in a defensible condition was on the south side of the town and nearly two miles in lengths; the labor upon it was all done by the two regiments of engineer troops and infantry details from the twentieth Army Corps, the balance of the army then being in motion against the rebel army, which had appeared upon our lines of communication.
Work upon these new defenses continued until stopped, about the 1st of November, though after the first week the details from the infantry commands were much smaller, and the work progressed more slowly owing to this fact, as well as because the impression prevailed that they would not be wanted for our purposes. Much care had [been] bestowed upon the several redoubts, and the finish put upon each was excellent. Those numbered from 7 to 12, inclu-