be expected from his commanding position. For this reason I took station myself on Maryland Heights, though my proper post should have been at headquarters. I must censure Lieutenant Kennedy for his remissness in this respect. During the whole raid I found it impossible to place any reliance upon his reports of the movements of troops or trains, or in his estimate of their number. It may be some excuse, perhaps, to state that he has had no experience and that he was unable to use anything but an ordinary marine glass. The latter failing is, however, his own fault, as I have endeavored to impress upon his mind the necessity of accustoming himself to the use of the large telescope ever since he has been under my command. Immediately upon my arrival on the heights I discovered that the enemy were moving troops and trains up the river on the Virginia side, crossing them into Maryland and moving down toward the Ferry. I reported the movement to General Sigel, and ventured to predict that on the morning of the 6th we should be attacked from the Maryland side. This prediction was fulfilled, and called forth a personal acknowledgment from the general of the merits of our services.
July 6 the enemy developed themselves in our front on the Maryland side. Our stations continued to work at the same points during the day and night, scarcely a moment's intermission occurring during thirty-six hours. The record for the day will, I trust, be a sufficient account of our labors.
Private Crawford was severely wounded in the thigh on the afternoon of the 6th while advancing with our skirmish line. He is at present at his home in Gettysburg, and doing well.
During the morning and afternoon of the 7th station on the heights continued to report to headquarters the withdrawal of the trains and troops of the enemy in the direction of Sharpsburg. These movements became so frequent as to satisfy me that the attack had been merely to cover the collection of supplies, and that they intended to retreat during the night either down the Shenandoah Valley from Shepherdstown, or across the South Mountain and Catoctin Mountain toward Frederick City and cross below Point of Rock. You will find this connection embodied in the messages of the 7th, and it was also reported to General Sigel verbally in answer to a question asked me relative to their movements.
July 8 our reports of the previous day were amply confirmed. No signs of the enemy could be seen in our front. During the entire day our party was employed in endeavoring to discover their line of retreat. At 11 a. m. I informed General Sigel that they must be moving on Boonsborough or Frederick, as none could be seen moving down the Shenandoah Valley. In compliance with this report, Colonel Mulligan's brigade was moved toward Point of Rocks via Jefferson, and also a small body of cavalry. Still later in the day, the enemy, having emerged from the mountains which obstructed our view toward the north, were seen from the heights crossing the Catoctin range on the Frederick City pike. This confirmed our previous reports, and satisfied the general commanding of the direction and intention of the enemy. At noon this day I had sent Lieutenant Kennedy to report to General Stahel, commanding the cavalry in Pleasant Valley, and had directed him to follow. I also directed him to go up on the South Mountain, where a fine view could be obtained of Middletown Valley. By some mistake he