War of the Rebellion: Serial 051 Page 0572 KY., SW. VA., TENN., MISS., N. ALA.,AND N. GA.

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[CHAP. XLII.

Among the principal machines thus taken by the Government were the following, viz: One steam-engine, 50-horse power, with gearing complete; 6 iron turning lathes; 4 boring machines, iron; 1 planing machine (large), iron; 2 planing machines (small), iron; 1 bolt machine, iron; 12 iron vises; 2 iron wood lathes; 2 steam saw frames, with 6 circular saws; 2 cupolas, with fan blowers; 1 large crane.

This arsenal, under the immediate superintendence of Mr. Charles E. Mallam, furnished employment to about loyal citizens besides the regular employes of the department, and was used for the following purposes: The arms captured or rendered unserviceable in the hands of the troops were here repaired and cleaned; cooking utensils for the troops were cast and finished; gun carriages and their spare parts were made and repaired; castings made of machinery and tools for the use of the engineer, ordnance, quartermaster's, and commissary department, and coffins, arm-chests, packing, boxes, &c., fabricated. The expense to the Government was but slight, and great advantage was thus derived.

The surrender of Cumberland Gap resulted in the capture of the following ordnance and ordnance stores, viz: One 12-pounder gun, brass, smooth; two 6-pounder guns, brass, smooth; two 3.8-inch rifled guns, brass; two 12-pounder mountain howitzers, brass; 2 iron guns, smooth-bore, caliber about 4.6; 2 iron guns, smooth-bore, caliber about 3.6; 11 gun carriages and caissons; 1 forge and battery wagon; about 270 rounds of ammunition for each gun; 1,842 stand of small-arms, serviceable; 380 stand of small-arms, unserviceable; 1,000 sets of infantry accouterments; 141,000 rounds of small-arms ammunition.

The field guns with their carriages and ammunition were left in position at Cumberland Gap, while the small-arms with accouterments and ammunition were sent to the depot at Knoxville, where those unserviceable were repaired, and all issued to the troops recruited in that vicinity.

The bad effects of having such a variety of calibers of arms in use was particularly illustrated in the engagement which took place on the 20th of October, 1863, at Philadelphia, Tenn., between our forces under Colonel Frank Wolford and the rebel cavalry. In the early part of the engagement Colonel Wolford telegraphed for ammunition, his own becoming exhausted. It having been impossible to procure a report of the arms in his command, he was directed to state how much and of what kind he required. He replied that his men were armed with the following varieties, viz:

Sharps carbines, Burnside carbines, Gallagher carbines, Cosmopolitan carbines, Colt rifles, Springfield rifled muskets, Enfield rifled muskets, Colt pistols, caliber 44, and Colt pistols, caliber 36.

These required nine different kinds of ammunition and a supply of seven of them being on hand at Knoxville, he was furnished with a sufficient amount for the emergency. Had his men all been armed with the same weapon, no want of ammunition would have occurred.

The infantry, with the exception of a single regiment, were all armed with caliber 58 rifled muskets, and, although no trains of ammunition arrived for a long period, the supply was not once exhausted.

The machine for the manufacture of percussion caps at present in use in the rebel army was invented by a citizen of Knoxville, and the