the change and pressed so hard upon the relieving force that I was compelled to halt and send one of the brigades back to assist in reestablishing my former line, also to protect my ammunition train, which was passing at the time.
These serious detentions had the effect of separating my division and destroying the unity of action in my command, which I was unable to restore during the day.
I deeply regret the circumstances which rendered this subdivision necessary, actually placing two of my brigades entirely beyond my personal supervision. Although I am satisfied that the causes which interfered with the unity and concerted movements of my command are properly appreciated by my corps and department commanders, and will not be allowed to detract from the credit due the division, yet I feel that it would have been more advantageous and satisfactory had it been otherwise.
10 a. m., on being informed that General Thomas' left was being turned, I left Sirwell's brigade to follow with the artillery, and pushed Stanley's brigade forward under heavy fire to the left of General Thomas' line, where Stanley met the enemy in heavy force.
Here I received orders, through Captain Gaw, to take charge of and mass all the artillery at hand on a high ridge facing the south.
I now learned with surprise that Sirwell's brigade was not yet relieved, and that Captain Johnson, of my staff, was compelled to withdraw his brigade, leaving only a weak line of skirmishers.
I immediately took charge of all batteries at this point and massed them on the ridge, placing them in position supported by Sirwell's brigade when it arrived.
1 p. m. a heavy force of the enemy was discovered to be moving to our left and rear; also, that Beatty's brigade was being overwhelmed.
Sirwell's brigade was at once sent forward to check his advance, while Bridges' Battery, of Beatty's brigade, and Smith's (Fourth Regular) battery were placed in position and immediately opened a very destructive fire upon him from the ridge facing eastward, causing him to fall back, thus temporarily relieving the left wing.
The character of the ground prevented the effective use of all the batteries; they were placed on a ridge to the rear, and the Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers sent to protect them; the remainder of Sirwell's brigade was deployed at the most exposed points.
2 p. m., finding that our right wing and center had given way before the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, and being hard pressed on my front and right, I sent Lieutenant Moody, of my staff, to General Rosecrans for a brigade.
Upon being applied to, General Rosecrans replied that it was too late, that he could give me no help.
At this juncture, General Brannan applied to me for support, and I ordered the Twenty-first Ohio Volunteers, of Sirwell's brigade, to his assistance.
I then rode forward to the crest of the ridge over which the right wing and center were retiring, to get a position for artillery, when I was met by a strong column of the enemy, who pressed forward rapidly between me and the troops on my left, leaving me but one whole regiment (Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers) and a part of another organized, with the artillery in my charge with its ammunition nearly exhausted; at the same time my ammunition train had been driven off the field.