do would be accomplished by rifled field artillery. At every point mentioned there are exceedingly favorable locations for a field battery to act upon vessels attempting to enter the harbors, and such a battery, instead of being fixed, could ply to any point where a landing might be threatened.
In conclusion, I consider the way to "guard the States of new York, Pennsylvania,and Ohio against hostile raids from Canada" is by home guards and not defensive works. Artillery companies should be organized, supplied with field artillery (if not already done), at the following places, viz: Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland, and Toledo, and battalions or regiments of State militia should be organized at all the places I have named, and kept in a complete state of dril and efficiency; the Governor of the several States and the mayors of the several towns mentioned should be informed that upon their own vigilance mainly must repose the security of their property. In conjunction with these measures by the State authorities, it would be advisable to employ a few intelligent men of the right short to spend their time mainly in Canada and the provinces, keeping themselves informed of what is going on along the lake and river shores, and so far as practicable of what is taking place among the secessionists themselves and their Canadian or provincial sympathizers.
I have to acknowledge much useful information and assistance in making my examinations from Colonel Bliss, of Govenor Tod's staff, whom the Governor kindly directed to accompany me.
I am, very respectfully, your most obedient,
J. G. BARNARD,
BEVERLY, December 26, 1863.
Brigadier General B. F. KELLEY,
I will move toward the railroad to-morrow. From the fact that Early and Fitzhugh Lee are in the department, I think it highly important that my mounted force should be taken into the valley as soon as possible. Will your order cars for my transportation to be at Webster on Tuesday, 29th instant? I will endeavor to reach Cumberland to-morrow night myself.
WM. W. AVERELL,
HEADQUARTERS FIRST CORPS, December 28, 1863.
Chief of Staff, Army of the Potomac:
In my orders of 22nd instant from your headqarters, I am directed to "throw forward a brigade close up to the cavalry at Mitchell's Station." In accordance with these orders, a brigade was posted there. I now find that the cavalry which I supposed to be at that point are about 1 1/2 miles to the rear, though with their pickets in front. General Merritt gives as a reason for not posting his cavalry