strength of the works, the greater the force which could have been employed, and the greater the security attained against a stronger attack. Without protective works, the island being open to sea and land attack, its natural features being its only available protection, too great a number would not have added to its security.
With regard to Sullivan's Island, so long as it was not immediately threatened by a land attack, 1,000 infantry and a regiment of artillery seemed like a sufficiency. The number of artillerists depends of course, on the guns in position. If Sullivan's Island were in danger of being attacked, as Morris Island was, it would have required as many men.
Certain artificial advantages of communication and works gave to Sullivan's Island advantages over Morris Island for defense. And, if I remember aright, in the early part of July, and for months previously, the bulk of the enemy's forces, his works, and movements indicated an attack, if he attacked at all, on Morris rather than Sullivan's Island.
To your third interrogatory: The returns are not immediately at hand. The question has been answered, I think, several times. I will give you the approximation: On Morris Island, on the 10th of July, there was the Twenty-first South Carolina Volunteers, about 600; two companies of artillery, at Battery Wagner, about 120; a detachment of about 40 at Battery Gregg; and a detachment of couriers. In round numbers, the whole force was about 1,000 for the entire island.
On Sullivan's Island, on the 10th July, there were the First South Carolina Regular Infantry, acting as artillery, say 500 strong, and three companies of the Twentieth South Carolina Volunteers, about 250, with a detachment of cavalry as couriers; in all, about 800 strong. The artillery force was heavy, on account of the batteries guarding the harbor. Five companies of the Twentieth South Carolina Volunteers had been withdrawn, when the immediate land attack was threatened on Morris or James Island, to re-enforce James Island, where there was a large space to defend, if the enemy chose to attack, and in the vicinity of which he had a considerable force. Two orders were detached to the northern batteries in Christ Church.
To your fourth interrogatory: In the First Military District there are now (December 16) 3, 315 infantry; 1,015 heavy artillery; 284 light artillery, and 129 cavalry; effective in all, 4,779
But it must be remarked that what was necessary before the late occurrences in this harbor, for the defense of Sullivan's island, cannot be referred ot as any standard of comparison with what is necessary now. Then Sullivan's Island was one of there points of defense for the outer harbor; now it is the only point. Then the enemy was in force and at work in another direction; now he has no other point of attack on the outer harbor except the ruins of Fort Sumter. Then Sumter gave protection to much of its shore; now Sumter requires its protection. Then the enemy had, if, form has land positions, he wished to organize a night attack in boats, to do it at long distances. The loss of Morris island and the crippling of Fort Sumter have shortened the distance by 10 miles.
No security exists against such an attack but to employ heavy guards along the shores, and to have strong supports and forces ot
*See Colonel Roman's remarks, following, p. 559.