less for material and labor, but at this period none could be had for the purpose.
Captain Suess reports three Requa batteries in position on the left of the seaward defensive barricade, and 34 yards (extending nearly to low water) for infantry defense. He proposes that on the right flank of this work (hence of the second parallel) be built a surf battery* for two field howitzers. The foundation to be crib work, supporting the gun platforms, and a parapet built of filled sand-bags. The general commanding approved the plan; the work was accordingly begun to-day.
The enemy shelled our works very heavily to-day. Our mortar batteries in the first parallel and 30-pounder Parrott rifles on the left replied briskly.
Thursday, August 6.-Made repairs in defensive howitzer battery on right of second parallel. Two Wiard field guns now in position there have proven very destructive to platforms and embrasures; more so than any field guns which have come under my observation.
Continued yesterday's work.
Scarcely a gun has been heard to-day.
Friday, August 7.-I made an official communication to-day, suggesting--
That preparatory to extending our approaches beyond the second parallel, the outposts of the guard of the trenches should be advanced gradually, night after night, that as much ground as possible be secured on which the advance can be made by the flying sap, thus saving time.
The general commanding ordered this to be done.
Battery Kearny is ready for its armament; the bomb-proof magazine will be finished in one more night. Other work in progress the same as yesterday.
Saturday, August 8.-Conducted experiments to-day which relate to sapping.+ Fired 30-pounder Parrott rifle projectiles into a sap-roller; ascertained "constants of work" (work of one man for one hour) in a trench; also penetration of rifle-balls into wet and dry sand, fascines, pine planks, and palmetto logs.++
Began to-night an emplacement for one Wiard field gun in the salient on the left, and just in advance of Battery Kearny. This gun had two embrasures-one for defense of the obstacle, the other for firing on Battery Gregg and Wagner. Other work in progress the same as yesterday.
This night I made a second full reconnaissance of all the ground inside the picket line, and located position of third parallel and approach to it, in compliance with instructions from the general commanding.
Sunday, August 9.-The engineering difficulties anticipated at this time in the construction of the approaches against Wagner were--
First. The narrow front on which to conduct the operations, together with the scarcity of earth for covering masses, as heretofore experienced.
Second. The heavy cross-fire from Wagner and Sumter, Battery Gregg, and the James Island batteries, which will necessarily take in reverse and enfilade a part of our trenches; together with the vigilance, skill, and obstinacy of the enemy's sharpshooters.
Third. The difficulty of protecting the flanks of our parallels from being turned by the sorties of the enemy. At each low tide our
*See Note 4, p. 308.
+See Note 13, p. 323.
++See Note 15, p. 324.