60 yards of wire entanglement,* was built across Morris Island, from low water on the right to impassable marsh on the left, at a mean distance of 100 yards in advance of the parapet. Lieutenant Wilson assisted in the superintendence of this work.
4. A large bomb-proof service magazine was begun in the center of an old graveyard (which, it is to be regretted, was too evidently the best place for it), just in rear of the parapet, under the superintendence of Captain Graef. This structure was intended to be used as a bomb-proof shelter for men, until needed for powder.
5. The transportation of engineer materials from the depot was conducted by Lieutenant Colonel C. L. Wilcken, New York Volunteer Engineers.
The establishment of the second parallel was regarded at this period as one of the most critical operations of the siege. It was performed to the satisfaction of the general commanding.
The Fourth New Hampshire Volunteers, numbering 425 effective men, and a detachment of about 75 men from the New York Volunteer Engineers, did the work. All the field officers, Colonel Bell, Lieutenant-Colonel Sleeper, and Major Drew, of the first-named regiment, were present. Brigadier General I. Vogdes was general of the trenches.
I had, on first learning the intention of the general commanding, expressed the belief, and was not alone in it, that the enemy could probably prevent our placing very heavy guns in this advanced position by means of his artillery fire from Fort Wagner. Two weeks later (night of August 10), when he began to use a part of this fire, I saw its effect upon our troops, then well sheltered by parapets, and was confirmed in this belief. The enemy made but little use of Fort Wagner's fire, excepting for the immediate defense of the work itself.
Friday, July 24.-No work was attempted in the second parallel during the day. It was occupied by our sharpshooters and a strong advanced guard.
To give security and concealment to our line of communication, zigzag approaches from the first to the second parallel were built to-night, under the supervision of Lieutenant McGuire, by means of the flying sap.+
The parapet of the second parallel was strengthened, and extended westward by Lieutenant Farrand. Sand-bags++ only were used for rivetting.
The inclined palisading was extended by a return along the beach, in a manner similar to the arrangement in front of the first parallel. The wire entanglement was also increased.
Heavy firing from both sides to-day, which was continued by our mortars in the first parallel through the night.
Saturday, July 25.-Completed on the left the first emplacement for a heavy breaching gun (8-inch Parrott rifle). This gun was mounted to-day, and first fired at Sumter August 12. It was served from a bomb-proof magazine built expressly for it. When afterward employed against Sumter, it was designated as constituting a part of Battery Hays. Lieutenant McGuire, assisted by Lieutenant James Baxter, New York Volunteer Engineers, superintended this work.
(This is the last engineering operation with which I have been connected on the left. Henceforward my duties will be on the right, and chiefly in advance of the first parallel.)
*See Note 2, p. 304.
+See Note 13, p. 326.
++See Note 10, p. 318.