attention to the Army of the Potomac, rapidly approaching him. This is undoubtedly the correct view, for already Lee's advanced troops are falling back for concentration. This is a difficult place to defend, as the river is fordable both above and below. The works on the right bank of the river are quite extensive, and well planned to defend a direct approach. With good troops in these works, they could not be readily taken. General Couch has done everything possible for the defense of the place with the means he has been able to obtain. Of course, his troops are undisciplined, but, under General Smith, who commands the defenses, I think they will be greatly improved in this respect. There is a want of artillery and especially of practiced artillerists. Understanding that two companies of the Fifth Artillery were at Fort Hamilton, I last night telegraphed General Wool to send them on. They would be of great service at this time. In case General Wool objects, I hope you will have the order carried out. This measure is greatly desired by General Couch and the Governor. General Couch is greatly deficient in cavalry, and I have urged him to rapidly increase it. If he relies upon cavalry furnishing their own horses, I fear he will be disappointed and certainly meet with delay. i understand the purchase of horses has been stopped, which, I think, is a mistake. The excitement here is not so great as I found it in Philadelphia, and the people begin to understand that the fate of this city depends entirely upon the results of the operations of the Army of the Potomac.
HARRISBURG, PA., July 1, 1863.
Major General D. N. COUCH,
SIR: I last night telegraphed General Wool to send the two batteries of artillery at Fort Hamilton to this post. I yesterday made an examination of the defenses, and looked somewhat at the troops. You are greatly deficient in artillery and cavalry, and I would advise you to increase both as rapidly as possible. If you rely upon cavalry coming with their own horses, I am afraid you will be disappointed, as well as meet with delay in getting a proper amount of this force, and I think the Government should furnish both horses and equipments. Already, I understand, some of the cavalry have sent back their horse, they having been rejected as unsuitable.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST, New York City, July 1, 1863.
Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS,
Adjutant-General of the Army, Harrisburg, Pa.:
I have received your telegram of 30th, ordering two companies of artillery from Fort Hamilton, amounting to 155 men, effective. These constitute the garrison of the fort. I have at Fort Richmond one company of infantry; one company of infantry at Sandy Hook, and 133 men at Fort Schuyler, not well instructed in artillery drill. If you take from Fort Hamilton the artillery stationed at Fort Hamil-