strengthened on their south sides, so as to make them of use to us in resisting attacks from the enemy. It is for this reason that it is essential to fortify Bald Bluff, which lies to the south of College Hill, and commands it within easy range, and on which the rebels erected no works.
The defenses of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad have already deterred the rebels from attempting to burn any of the large bridges, as is already known from their effect on General John [H.] Morgan, who recently arrived to destroy the bridge at Salt Creek and the two large ones at Muldraugh's Hill, but from which he was deterred by the works at these points.
It only remains for the same system of artillery administration which I recommended on the fortifications of Covington and Newport, and which I have by letter urged on the chief of artillery for fortifications [Brigadier-General Tillson], to be established on the fortifications of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, to insure, with the full complement of guns called for by requisition on the Ordnance Department, a very secure defense.
SURVEYS FOR THE EXTENSION OF THE KENTUCKY CENTRAL RAILROAD FROM NICHOLASVILLE INTO EAST TENNESSEE, VIA DANVILLE AND SOMERSET.
Upon the reception of your order of June 23, 1863 [see this order marked A, herewith], I proceeded to organize three parties of engineers and procure their outfit. They were all on their divisions, July 4, but owing to the excitement in the vicinity of Danville on account of the Morgan raid, and the difficulty of securing ax-men, &c., their operations were somewhat retarded for a few days.
The line of the railroad being already graded from Nicholasville to the Kentucky River, excepting about five thousand dollars' worth of work to be done near the river, I started the first part to run a route for a low crossing of the river on a temporary bridge and with the use of high grades at each side of the river.
The best line was found to begin on the face of the cliff, 1 1/2 miles up the river on the north side, and descend the face of the cliff to the river, crossing under the bridge proposed on the old line; grade, 200 feet per mile. The line then ran up the valley of Cedar Run, a small stream on the south side of the Kentucky River, emptying in about a quarter of a mile below the mouth of Dick's River. This stream is so very crooked as to require very frequent crossings of the stream and very sharp curves besides, and very heavy work, the gorge of the valley being about 300 feet deep and very narrow; grades, 120 feet per mile.
I therefore advises the abandonment of this project, and the adoption of the old line and suspension bridge. The towers and anchorage of this bridge are already completed [by M. Roebling] in a most substantial manner, and a considerable amount of work has been done in grading on the first mile south of the river. I found it best to follow the old location about 2 miles about of the river only, and then diverge more westwardly than the former surveys, in order to avoid the deep valleys of the tributaries of Dick's River.
By following out this general idea, we have succeeded in locating a route to Danville, which, though somewhat longer, will not cost half as much as the former location, while the curves and grades are not much increased.
The line passes to the west end of Danville, while the former line went to the east end, and it puts the line out of the town, saving all damage to city property, and yet being close enough to the town for depot purposes.
Two miles south of Danville our route intersects the old survey made toward McMinnville, in Tennessee, and follows that line about 5 miles, passing the first range of knobs south of Danville about 3 miles, by a branch of Clark's Run, and passing the celebrated Knob Lick. From the head of this branch of Clark's Run, the line keeps across the extreme heads of the tributaries of the Hanging Fork of Dick's River, which is quite a level plain, while just to the right or west side of the line a range of knobs some 300 feet high rises abruptly from the plain, and to the left or east side the plain rises rapidly, and the streams cut down through it, so that in a