range of the enemy's sharpshooters. In addition to the duties of the batteries in position, Captain De Russy was charged with the protection of the left flank of the army, with clearing the ground for our deployment to the left, and with confining the enemy to the east bank of the Massaponax, so as to prevent his annoying our rear and threatening the bridges. These very important duties required him to keep his batteries in movement and almost constantly at work, and demanded unceasing watchfulness and vigilance on his part night and day. They were performed with excellent judgment, efficiently and thoroughly, and Major-General Franklin has intimated to me their value. Captain De Russy has thus added to the character he had already acquired on many fields for gallantry and skill. An old soldier, a captain of fifteen years standing, who won that grade by leading a storming party at Chepultepec, and whose reputation was established by his whole record in the war with Mexico, the services he has rendered in this war in important positions have been neglected and unrewarded, and I avail myself on an occasion, upon which his command and duties have been so far beyond the rank he holds, to bring his claims through you, who are well acquainted with them, specially to the notice of the Government.
The chiefs of artillery of corps whose batteries were engaged were Colonel C. S. Wainwright, First New York Artillery, First Corps; Captain C. H. Morgan, Fourth Artillery, Second Corps; Captain L. L. Livingston, Third Artillery, Third Corps; Captain S. H. Weed, Fifth Artillery, Fifth Corps, and Captain R. B. Ayres, Fifth Artillery, Sixth Corps. They performed these duties with their accustomed skill and gallantry, and I respectfully refer to their reports and those of their corps commanders for particulars. The artillery seems to have been managed by them with judgment. The expenditure of ammunition was notably reduced when compared with the effect produced and former experience; and in all cases where the material was endangered, or from reduction in the number of men and horses exposed to danger, proper measures were adopted to secure them. Not a gun nor a carriage was lost; repairs of damages were effected promptly, and the batteries were placed in as effective condition as circumstances would permit.
The supply of artillery ammunition from the division trains was uncertain, and, until those trains are placed under the exclusive control of the chiefs of artillery, reliance cannot, in my opinion, be placed upon them. The ammunition train of the Artillery Reserve, however, as has always been the case, under the very efficient management of Lieutenant W. D. Fuller, Third Artillery, assisted by Lieutenant Elbert, Third Cavalry, supplied all deficiencies. All artillery, and I might add infantry, ammunition should be transported in caissons, under the direction of properly organized companies. In this way only can supplies under all circumstances, on the field of battle as elsewhere, be certainly provided when wanted.
Attention has been called in the course of these reports, and it is of sufficient importance to make it a subject of notice in connection with the reports of battles, to the absolute necessity of keeping up, especially in the light 12-pounder batteries, the number of men required for their efficient service. This should never be less than 150 for a six-gun battery. The service of guns on the field requires a great amount of physical power. Under all circumstances the work is exceedingly exhausting, and when the number of men is much reduced it becomes too great for endurance. Details of 20 and 30 men in several cases had to be fur-