War of the Rebellion: Serial 031 Page 0181 Chapter XXXIII. BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG, VA.

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ing a low plain, the extension of that on the south side, varying in width from the river to the hills from 350 to 1,100 yards. Along the base of the ridge runs the main or river road, crossing White Oak Run by a ford at Pollock's Mill, about 5 1/2 miles.

In order to control the enemy's movements on the plain; to reply to and silence his batteries along the crest of his ridge; to command the town; to cover and protect the throwing of the bridges and the crossing of the troops, and to protect the left flank of the army from attacks in the direction of the Massaponax River, it was necessary to cover the entire length with artillery, posted in such positions as were favorable for these purposes. The Artillery Reserve had been so much reduced by the assignment of batteries to the cavalry brigades and infantry divisions, that all the division artillery except one battery for each, was withdrawn from the troops and temporarily attached to the reserve, which was arranged in four large divisions.

The right, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Hays, aide-de-camp (now brigadier-general), extending from Falmouth dam to a deep, long ravine, about 500 yards below Falmouth, consisted of forty rifled guns, of which six were 20-pounder Parrotts, and the remainder light rifled guns.

The right center, under the command of Colonel Tompkins, First Rhode Island Artillery, extended from the ravine to near the point assigned for the middle bridge, and consisted of thirty-eight guns-twenty-four light rifles and fourteen light 12-pounders.

The left center, under command of Colonel (now Brigadier General) R. O. Tyler, First Connecticut Artillery, consisting of twenty-seven rifled guns, of which seven were 4 1/2-inch siege guns, eight 20-pounder Parrotts, and twelve light rifles, occupied the crest of the high ridge, commencing near the middle bridge, and extending to the wooded ravine, near the center of the ridge.

The left, under the command of Captain G. A. De Russy, Fourth U. S. Artillery, consisting of eight 20-pounder Parrotts and thirty-four 3-inch rifles, occupied the remainder of the crest of this high ridge, and the whole of the low ridge, terminating at Pollock's Mill.

The right division was charged with the duty of clearing the hills on the south side of the river in front of them, and their slopes down as far as the town; to engage the enemy's batteries of position on the crests, and to sweep the plain from below the ford to the hills, so as to clear it of the enemy, and thus aid the advance of Sumner's grand division in the assault, which, in the original plan of battle, was intended to be made on the enemy's extreme left. The right center

DISTRIBUTION OF THE ARTILLERY.

The Right.

6 20 pdrs. E, 2nd U. S., Lieutenant Benjamin.

6 3-inch, A, 4th U. S., Lieutenant King.

6 3-inch, G, 1st R. I., Captain Owen.

4 3-inch, L, 2nd N. Y., Captain Roemer.

6 10 pdrs., 2nd Pa. Batty, Captain Durrell.

6 10-pdrs., B, 1st N. Y., Captain Pettit.

6 10-pdrs., D, 5th U. S., Lieutenant Hazlett.

The Right Center.

6 10-pdrs., 4th N. Y. Batty., Captain Smith.

6 12-pdrs, K, 1st U. S., Captain Graham.

4 12-pdrs., G, 4th U. S., Lieutenant Miller.

4 12-pdrs., K, 5th U. S., Lieutenant Kinzie

6 3-inch, D, 1st N. Y. Battn., Captain Kusserow.

6 3-inch, C, 1st R. I., Captain Waterman.

6 3-inch, H, 1st Ohio, Captain Huntington.

The Left Center.

4 41/2, B 1st Conn., Captain Brooker.

3 41/2, M, 1st Conn., Captain Pratt.

4 20-pdrs., A, 1st N. Y. Battn., Captain Diederichs.

4 20-pdrs., B, 1st N. Y. Battn., Captain Voegelee.

4 10-pdrs., 3rd N. Y. Batty., Lieutenant Harn.

4 10-pdrs., C, 1st Pa., Captain McCarthy.

4 10-pdrs., D, 1st Pa., Captain Hall.

The Left.

4 20-pdrs., 5th N. Y. Batty, Captain Taft.

4 20-pdrs., C, 1st N. Y. Battn., Lieutenant Wever.

6 3-inch, A, 1st Md., Captain Wolcott.

6 3-inch, 2nd Maine, Captain Hall.

6 3-inch, 1st N. Y. Batty, Captain Cowan.

4 3-inch, L, 1st N. Y., Captain Reynolds.

4 3-inch, 4th Pa. Batty., Captain Thompson.

4 3-inch, F, 1st Pa., Lieutenant Ricketts.

4 3-inch G, 1st Pa., Lieutenant Amsden.