did not put it there. The work placed on Camp Hill, according to the directions of General Saxton, was all very well in case the enemy made an attack along this plateau between Bolivar Heights and Bolivar itself, but when the enemy had a battery on Loudoun Heights, that place was under their fire, was commanded by it, and became of no use.
Question. What number of men would be requisite on Maryland Heights, with these works you speak of?
Answer. I should think at least 3,000 men, making allowances for all contingencies. That is an excellent place for water - a spring to get water from.
Answer. Just beyond this camp [pointing out on the map]; a plenty of it on this plateau.
Question. If the enemy occupied that position would there have been a supply of water on the heights?
Answer. Then make cisterns there for water.
Question. Or force it up by a steam-engine from the river?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. What is the capacity of that spring, if you can tell?
Answer. I think it was sufficient to supply in the neighborhood of from 2,000 to 3,000 men; that is, with care by damming it up, and saving the water. Perhaps the supply might have been larger by sinking it deeper. That I never tried, and, of course, I am not able to say.
Question. Have you been educated as a military engineer?
Answer. As a civil engineer. I had practice with Crawford Neilson as a military engineer, and with several engineers whose names I do not recollect now. I was with General Rosecrans on his staff as assistant engineer, and with General Cox in the Kanawha Valley, after General Fremont took command of Western Virginia.
By General WHITE:
Question. And you constructed the works at Winchester?
Answer. Yes, sir; I have studied military engineering a great deal, and am very anxious to put it in practice. For the defense of Loudoun Heights, I think it would have been necessary to have pu up a work there of considerable strength; a regular work for at least 3,000 men, for that is liable to be attacked not only from the east side but from the south side, along the ridge. There I think I should have and some six or eight guns, and some of them long-range guns. The water for that position would have to be secured by means of cisterns. For Bolivar Heights, I think two or three small detached works would have been sufficient; but it is necessary, to fortify that place, to clear the timber off at least 1 1/2 miles from the positions of the artillery, to make it of any strength. That is all I have to say relative to fortifying that place.
Question. A portion of the question related to the time it would have taken to have constructed these works.
Answer. If would have taken, at an average of 1,000 men, two months and a half, easy work.
Question. How long would it have taken to have fortified Maryland Heights alone, as you have described it?
Answer. About three weeks.
Question. Did you contemplate the erection of block-houses?
Answer. No, sir; they are not of much importance in a position of that kind, except against infantry. Where the enemy is able to bring artillery upon them, they are but a trap.
Question. Do you not think that position would have been attacked by infantry, if attacked at all by a large force?
Answer. Certainly; infantry and artillery together.
49 R R - VOL XIX, PT I